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AP Psych > Behaviorism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Behaviorism Deck (59):
1

Acquisition

First time the CR happens as a result of the CA

2

Conditioned response

Learned, what now triggers this behavior

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Generalization

Have a CR to a similar stimulus

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Vicarious classical conditioning

Being classically conditioned by someone else

Ex: your mom hates olives so you hate olives

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Unconditioned Response

Physical reaction

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Conditioned stimulus

Learned, what now triggers the behavior

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Discrimination

Have a CR only to a specific stimulus

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Unconditioned stimulus

Natural reaction

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Extinction

Overtime we lose the CR following the CS

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Classical conditioning

Learned associations, involuntary behavior

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Neutral stimulus

At first there is no response, after training there is a stimulus

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Spontaneous recovery

The CR suddenly returns after it had previously become extinct

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Law of effect

The more we reinforce a behavior the more it will occur

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Operant chamber

Chamber with the birds where if they answer a question right or do a certain action they are rewarded with food or water

15

Positive punishment

Adding something unwanted to decrease a behavior

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Reinforcement

Increases the chance that a behavior will happen again in the future

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Primary reinforcer

A reinforcer that you need to survive

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Negative punishment

Take away something that is wanted to decrease the behavior

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Secondary reinforcer

Something that we like or enjoy (not a necessity)

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Positive reinforcement

Giving something wanted to increase the behavior (rewarding)

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Operant conditioning

A voluntary action and focuses on rewards and punishments

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Negative reinforcement

Taking away something unwanted to increase the behavior

Ex: seatbelt ding

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Punishment

Main goal of this is to decrease a behavior

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Continuous reinforcement

A type of reinforcement where you are constantly rewarded for doing something

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Partial reinforcement

You are only rewarded sometimes as opposed to all the time

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Variable interval

Changing amount of time (unknown)

Ex: fishing

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Fixed ratio

Set amount of times that you have to repeat an action

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Variable ratio schedule

Changing amount of repetitions between reinforcement

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Fixed interval

Rewarding after a set amount of time

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Fixed

Stays the same

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Variable

Changes

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Interval

Period of time

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Ratio

Amount of repetitions

34

Mirror neurons

Located in motor cortex, person raises their hand chimp doesn't but a thing in their brain goes off that they are

35

Observational learning

Learning by watching something or someone else do that certain thing

36

Latent learning

Learning something without a reward and then being able to perform for a reward

Ex: mice in the maze

Also know as background learning

37

Insight

Think about a problem overtime and then suddenly the solution comes to you

38

Pavlov

CC with dogs

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Watson

CC with baby Albert

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Garcia

CC taste aversion

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Thorndike

OC law of effect

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Skinner

OC with positive reinforcement with rats and pigeons (operant chamber)

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Tolman

Observational and social learning

Latent learning (cognitive)

Ex: maze with rats

44

Bandura

Observational and social learning

BoBo doll (social and observational learning)

45

Behaviorism

The theory that behaviors can be explained using conditioning, and psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns

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Learning

Lasting change in behavior that is a result of experience

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Habituation

Decrease in a stimulus after being repeatedly exposed to it

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Associative learning

CC and OC

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Counter-Conditioning

Turns an unwanted behavior into a wanted behavior

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Shaping

Successive approximations toward a target behavior are reinforced

SKINNER

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Higher-Order Conditioning

Make a stimulus meaningful, then use that stimulus as a basis of learning new stimuli

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Token economy

Get tokens with no monetary value, then these tokens are exchanged for something with value.

Ex: Red tickets, Chuck E Cheese

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Behavior modification

Change in behavior through OC

PR NR PP NP

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Delayed reinforcer

A time delay between the desired response of an organism and the delivery of a reward


Ex: a diet

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Learned helplessness

Forced to bear a painful stimuli, becomes unavoidable and you just accept it

56

Modeling

Learning by imitation

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Cognitive map

A mental representation where you can recall and decode info about your day to day life

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Intrinsic motivation

Doing something because you enjoy it

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Extrinsic motivation

Doing something for a reward