Sensation and Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sensation and Perception Deck (73):
1

Bottom up processing

The process of looking at small pieces first then the big picture

2

Top down processing

The process of looking at the big picture first then the small pieces

3

Difference Threshold

The smallest amount of stimulus needed to notice a change

4

Signal detection theory

The minimum amount of a stimulus needed to know it exists. Depends on motivation, focus, and previous experience

5

Weber's Law

The change in stimulus to meet the difference threshold must increase or decrease by a consistent percentage

6

Selective attention

Conscious awareness that our brain is focused on at a given point in time

7

Absolute threshold

Minimum amount of a stimulus needed to know it exists

8

Sensory adaptation

When our brain stops alerting us to sensory information it has already processed

9

Pupil

Open space in the middle of the eye

10

Retina

Reflective coloring in the back of your eye that contains all of the rods and cones

11

Cones

Help us see color better during the day, at the center of our vision (Fovea)

12

Blind spot

Where the optic nerve connects to the retina and there are no receptors there

13

Iris

Colored part of our eye, the muscle opens and closes to let light in

14

Optic nerve

The nerve that connects your eye to to your brain

15

Fovea

Where most of your cones are located

16

Young-Helmhotz (Trichromatic Theory)

We have three types of color cones (Red, Blue, Green) and combinations of them help us see color

17

Intensity

How big the wavelengths are

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Lens

A disk that changes shape to reflect light on the correct part of the retina

19

Rods

The receptor cells on your retina that allow us to see black and white and better at night

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Cornea

Protective covering over the eye

21

Feature detectors

Specialized cells in your occipital lobe that identify angles, shapes, and movement

22

Opponent process theory

Opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) when one fires the other has to fire back

23

Middle ear

Three small bones in the ear, the hammer, anvil, and stirrup and they vibrate to amplify sound

24

Pinna

Collects sound waves

25

Auditory nerve

Connects the your ear to the brain

26

Sensorineural hearing loss

Damage to the inner ear (cochlea, auditory nerve) can be treated with cochlear implants

27

Frequency

Frequency of sound waves determines pitch

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Cochlea

A snail shaped coil who transducers sound into a neural message for your brain

29

Eardrum

Thin membrane that vibrates to amplify sound

30

Place theory

The pitch we head is determined by the location that the sound waves strike the cochlea. Doesn't explain lower pitched sounds

31

Conduction hearing loss

Damage to the outer or middle ear, also attributes to the deafness you get as you age, it can be treated with a hearing aid

32

Pitch

The speed at which sound waves travel

33

Inner ear

Made up of the cochlea and auditory nerve

34

Hammer/Anvil/Stirrup

Make up the middle ear, vibrate to amplify sound

35

Frequency theory

The pitch we hear is determined by the speed the sound waves travel down the auditory nerve. Can't explain very high pitched sounds

36

Cochlear implant

An implant near your cochlea that can cure deafness or at least help hearing

37

Kinesthetic sense

Our sense of where our body parts are in relation to each other

38

Vestibular sense

Your sense of overall body position

39

Gustatory sense

Your ability to taste
Sour-poisoness
Sweet-energy
Bitter-poison/spoiled food
Salty-sodium (for muscles to work properly)
Unami-meaty taste (provides protein)

40

Umami

Meaty taste (provides protein)

41

Olfactory sense

Smell

42

Gate-control theory

When enough touch receptors are active it will open a large fiber gate in the spinal cord

43

Sensory interaction

Smell and taste are both dependent on each other

44

Synesthesia

Mix up of the senses

Ex: tasting sounds

45

Gestalt

Our brain likes to see things as "wholes"

46

Proximity

Our brain groups things together that are close together

47

Visual cliff

A test to see wether babies have depth perception (they do)

48

Monocular cues

Depth perception question that we are able to perceive with one eye open

49

Perceptual set

Expectations and prior experiences affect our perceptions

50

Continuity

The ability to keep things the same

51

Binocular cues

Depth perception question you need both eyes open to see

52

Visual texture

We know that objects have more texture detail when viewing them from a close distance

53

Similarity

Our brain groups things together that look the same

54

Depth perception

The ability to see how close or far away something is and judge it based on your vision

55

Retinal disparity

Each eye has a slightly different image and when put together these images help us perceive depth

56

Interposition

When we judge depth based on which objects are in front of each other in a space

57

Color constancy

We know that items do not change color based on their location and the light surrounding them

58

Ernest Weber

Created Weber's law- the change in stimulus to meet the difference threshold must increase or decrease by a consistent percentage

59

Herman Von Helmholtz

The trichromatic theory- we have three types of colors (Red,Blue,Green) and combinations of them help us see color

60

Elantra Gibson and Richard Walk

Visual cliff experiment- a test to see wether babies had depth perception (they do)

61

Inattentional blindness

A psychological lack of attention that is not associated with any vision defects or deficits

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Transduction

The transportation of stimuli to the central nervous system

63

Wavelength

How sounds and light waves are measured

64

Parallel processing

The ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli of differing quality

65

Hue

The degree at which a stimuli can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow

66

Accommodation

What occurs when new information or experiences cause you to modify your existing Schemas (a plan or theory)

67

Audition

Hearing

68

Cutaneous sense

Touch

69

Phi phenomenon

The optical illusion of perceiving a series of still images, when viewed in rapid succession, as continuous motion

70

Figure ground

Relating to or denoting the perception of images by the distinction of objects from a background from which they appear to stand out

71

Perceptual constancy

Perceiving objects as having constant shape, size, and color regardless of changes in perspective, distance, and lighting

72

Extrasensory perception

The faculty of perceiving things by means other than the known senses

Ex: telepathy

73

Parapsychology

The study of phenomenas or psychic experiences into a broader study of psychology and the open mind.