Cognition and Memory Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Cognition and Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognition and Memory Deck (64):
1

Encodeing

Taking information in and processing it

2

Maintenance rehearsal

Repeat the info over and over to try to remember

3

Chunking

Grouping information together that needs to be remembered so we can remember it

4

Elaborative rehearsal

Add meaning or detail to help remember the info better

5

Mnemonic devices

Strange or unusual associations to help us remember info better

6

Method of Loci

Remembering info by visualizing it in various familiar places

7

Serial position effect

Tend to remember the first and last pieces of info the best

8

Proactive interference

Old info blocks new info from being remembered

9

Retroactive interference

New info blocks old info from being remembered

10

Sensory memory

A very short piece of sensory info

11

Iconic

Visual sensory memory

12

Eidetic

Photographic memory

13

Echoic

Auditory

14

Short term memory

Brief store house for info

15-20 seconds

5-7 items

15

Working memory

Another name for short term memory

16

Long term memory

Relatively permanent store house for all types of memory

17

Long term potentiation

Neural connections that get stronger with each time we process and use a piece of info in our memory

*repetition

18

Explicit/Declarative Memory

Meteorites you must use effort to recall

19

Nondeclarative/implicite memory

Memories that do not take effort to recall

20

Procedural memories

"How to" memories

21

Semantic memory

Facts/words/language

22

Episodic memory

Memories of your life

23

Flashbulb memory

Vivid powerful memories tied to an emotion or stress

24

Hippocampus

Stores your short term memory

25

Cerebellum

Balance and long term memory

26

Recall

Remembering info without any cue

27

Recognition

Given options from which to choose the right answer

28

Priming

Giving you background info/gets you back into the right mindset to recall info

29

Deja vu

Feel like something has happened before

30

Mood congruent memory

We tend to remember things at times when we felt a similar mood

31

State dependent learning/the encoding specificity principle

More likely to remember info if we are in the same mental "state"

32

Anterograde amnesia

Can no longer from any new memories

33

Retrograde amnesia

Cannot remember anything from your past

34

Repression

The controversial idea that we can block out unwanted memories

35

Source amnesia

You remember info, but inaccurately remember where you learned it

36

Misinformation affect

When conflicting info is given after an event, it affects our memory of the event itself

37

Confabulation

The act of creating a false memory

38

Forgetting curve

After learning info if it isn't practiced we rapidly forget

39

Spacing effect

Practice info a bit over time to aid in remembering that info

40

Automatic processing

Encoding like muscle memory

41

Effortful processing

Takes time and effort to encode the info

42

Visual encoding

The process of encoding images and visual sensory info

43

Acoustic encoding

The use of auditory stimuli or hearing to implant memories

44

Semantic encoding

The processing and encoding of sensory input that has particular meaning or can be applied to a context

45

Relearning

A way of measuring retention by measuring how much faster one relearns material that has been previously learned and forgotten

46

Ebbinghaus

Pioneered the experimental study of memory and cognition

47

Miller

The idea of short term memory and 5-7 items stored

48

Loftus

Misinformation effect and confabulation

49

Atkinson and shiffrin

The idea of memory storage

50

Kohler

Insight learning

When one suddenly realizes how to solve a problem

51

Concept

Overall categories that ideas/objects/ events fit into

52

Prototype

The main example of each concept for an individual

53

Algorithm

A problem solving strategy where you try every possible solution and you eventually get the answer but it's slow

54

Heuristic

A problem solving strategy that uses a rule of thumb or a shortcut to find the answer, it is faster but can easily lead to mistakes

55

Insight

The aha moment of understanding

56

Creativity

The phenomenon where so,etching new and valuable is formed, it does not need to be a tangible object but it still holds value

57

Availability heuristic

A problem solving strategy when we make a decision based on information that most readily comes to mind

58

Representativeness heuristic

A problem solving strategy based on a stereotype or generalization

59

Overconfidence

A cognitive bias where you think you were right all along

60

Confirmation bias

A cognitive bias where you tend to think so,thing is true even though it isn't

61

Fixation/mental set

We can only think of one way to solve a problem

62

Functional fixedness

We can only think of a normal use for an object

63

Belief perseverance

Clinging to ones initial belief even though contradicting evidence has been discovered

64

Framing

A cognitive bias where you react to a certain situation the way it is presented to you