Developmental Psychology Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Developmental Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Developmental Psychology Deck (82):
1

Stranger anxiety

When I child feels anxiety when a stranger is introduced into their environment

2

Secure attachment

Explore using mom as a base
Distress when mom leaves
Reserved interest in stranger
Excitement when mom returns

3

Resistant attachment

Very clingy
Distress when mom leaves
No interest in stranger
Cried when mom came back too

4

Avoidant attachment

Not interested in mom or stranger
Just went out an explored

5

Authoritarian/Dictatorial

Little independence for their children and are strict and harsh

Kids have poor self control and handle independence poorly

6

Authoritative

Compromise and learning from mistakes, are kind but not too kind

Kids are socially competent, self reliant, and socially responsible

7

Permissive indifferent

Interact little with their kids, don't know where they are and don't really care about their kids

These kids have poor self control and don't handle independence very well

8

Permissive indulgent

Parents are involved but place few limits on their kids, pushover

Kids have no respect for others and can't control their behaviors

9

Assimilation

When we try to fit new material into an existing SCHEMA

10

Accommodation

When a child learns to create a new SCHEMA for a new object

11

SCHEMA

Mental category

12

Sensorimotor

0-2

Sensory skills- babies putting things into their mouths

Motor skills- figuring out body parts

13

Object permanence

Babases realize that when things are out of sight they aren't actually gone

Ex: Peek a Boo

14

Preoperational

3-7
Child is very egocentric

Lacks reversibility ( being able to see a situation from another point of view)

15

Concrete operational

7-11
The child develops conservation (ability to understand things look different but can be the same ex: the juice glasses)

The child masters the concept of reversibility

16

Formal operational

12+
The child develops the ability to think hypothetically (about concepts that aren't tangible like history and algebra)

17

Vygotsky - modeling and scaffolding

Modeling and scaffolding

Show a child how each concept works a couple of times then they can do it for themselves

18

Pre conventional

0-8

Make moral decisions based on rewards and consequences

19

Conventional

9-12

Make decisions based on peer influence

20

Post conventional

12+

Moral decisions based on the greater good, your ethical code

21

Carol Gillian

Criticized Kohlberg because he only studied white males

22

Stage 1

Trust vs Mistrust

0-1

Trust- developed from consisten care of needs

Mistrust- developed from inconsistent care of needs

23

Stage 2

Autonomy vs shame/doubt

1-3

Autonomy- self dependent (let kids do things by themselves)

Shame/Doubt- don't allow kids to do things by themselves

24

Stage 3

Initiative vs guilt

3-6

Initiative- see that something needs to be done and they do it

Guilt- tell kids to stop their inititative

25

Stage 4

Industry vs inferiority

6-12

Industry- making/creating things

Inferiority- criticized for making/ creating things

26

Stage 5

Identity vs role confusion

Adolescence

Identity- beliefs, friend group, morals, career interests

Role confusion- not knowing what you're doing with your life

27

Stage 6

Intimacy vs isolation

Young adulthood

Intimacy- hoe strong you are able to maintain a relationship

Isolation- not having many strong relationships

28

Stage 7

Generativity vs stagnation

Middle adulthood

Generativity- having a family, getting a house, working in your career, basically being a productive member to society

Stagnation- not doing anything, nothing is meaningful, basically a mid life crisis

29

Stage 8

Ego integrity vs despair

Late adulthood

Ego integrity- looking back on your life and feeling proud and happy

Despair- looking back on your life and having major regrets or mistakes

30

Oral

0-1.5

Eating and putting tugs in their mouth

Oral fixation- over fed as a baby

31

Anal

1.5-3

Potty training

Anal retentive- over compulsive, potty trained as a baby

32

Phallic

3-7

Figuring out that boys and girls are different

Penis envy

33

Latency

7-11

Repressing earlier conflicts

Boys and girls have cooties

34

Genital

12+

Sexual relationships

35

Fixation

Super focused on one thing

36

Identity diffusion

I don't know what I want to do and I don't care

37

Identity foreclosure

I want to be a doctor because mom and dad always wanted me to

38

Identity moratorium

I don't know what I want to do but I am trying to figure it out

39

Identity achievement

I know what I want to do and I am in the process of getting there

40

Denial

Denying that something is wrong with you

41

Anger

Mad at diagnosis

42

Bargaining

Higher power or medical professional

43

Sadness

Dispare

44

Acceptance

Learned to live with it

45

Phenomes

Basic phonics and language sounds

46

Morphemes

Smallest unit of language with meaning

47

Grammar

Rules of a language

48

Semantics

Rules for the meanings of words

49

Syntax

Rules for the order of words

50

Noam Chomsky

Our brain is set up for learning language, once we hear a consistent language around us our brain soaks it up

51

Linguistic Determinism / Whorf

Our vocabulary determines the nature of our thoughts (ex: I think about diving because I know diving terms)

52

Over regularization

Over use of a grammar rule

"I did it the bestist"

53

Over extension

Using a word too broadly

Ex: calling all tissues Kleenex

54

Zygote

Begins as a single cell but begins to divide rapidly in the days following fertilization

55

Embryo

2 weeks - 2 month

First stages in development of a child in the mother

56

Fetus

9 weeks - Birth

Longest stage of baby being in the mom

57

Teratogens

Viruses that can hurt the fetus

Ex: Zika

58

Rooting reflex

A baby turns toward the hand it is touched with when it is touched on the cheek

59

Habituation

When a baby is used to someone they are continually exposed to

60

Fetal alcohol syndrome

When the mother drinks while she is pregnant

61

Maturation

The process in which an individual matures

62

Moro reflex

A baby is stimulated by a loud noise or something that startles them and they curl up in a ball to protect themselves

63

Grasping reflex

When a baby instinctually grabs onto hands and fingers when they are young

64

Monozygotic twins

Twins from the same egg

Identical

65

Imprinting

Ex: with the ducks and that guy and the ducks thought he was their mom because they were exposed to him first at birth

66

Temperament

Behavior of the baby

Crabby
Happy
Sad
Etc.

67

Dizygotic twins

Twins from different eggs

Fraternal twins

68

Phenotype

A physical trait you can see

69

Genotype

A trait that is in someone's genes but may not be an,emto be seen

70

Gross motor skills

Walking, running, etc.

71

Fine motor skills

Drawing, writing, eating with a fork and knife, etc.

72

Lorenz

Worked on imprinting with the geese

73

Harlow

Monkeys and contact comfort

74

Contact comfort

Ex: the monkeys valued the warm doll over the doll that was giving them food because they felt safe near the warm fuzzy doll

75

Critical period

A period in which a child is very susceptible to things in their development and it is important they develop certain skills during that period

76

X chromosome

Girls XX

Guys have it too

77

Y chromosome

Guys XY

Girls don't have it

78

Gender roles

Roles in our society in which the genders are supposed to do. Basically stereotypes.

79

Social learning

People learn from one another

80

Theory of mind

Ones beliefs and desires and the ability to understand that these differ from person to person

81

Zone of proximal development

A period of time in which development is rapid and important

82

Telegraphic speech

Using the least amount of words and such to communicate. Used by babies a lot to communicate things. Usually uses crude grammar and minimal words.