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Flashcards in Believing In God Deck (39)
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Definition of omnipotent

All powerful


What is omniscient

All knowing


What is a theist

Someone who believes in God


What is an agnostic

Someone who is not sure if God exists


What is an atheist

Someone who doesn't believe in God


What is a monotheist

Someone who believes in only one God


What is a polytheist

Someone who believes in many gods, or forms of the same God


Definition of omnipresent



What is the design argument

The universe is too complex to have just happened by chance. It must have been designed. Only God is powerful enough to design a universe. Therefore God exists.


Evidence for the design argument

Beauty in nature
The eye
Fibonacci sequences within nature


What did Aquinas say about the design argument

The universe needs an intelligent being to keep it in order. Only God is powerful enough. Therefore God exists


What did Paley say about the design argument

If you found a watch but didn't know what it was, you would have to conclude it was so complex and fit for purpose it would have to have been designed. The world is the same, and only God is powerful enough to be the designer. Therefore God exists


Reasons against the design argument

Evolution could account for apparent design (Darwin)
Cruelty and suffering exists in the world, and an all loving designer would not have included it
How can attributes such as love and forgiveness be designed - yet they exist


What is benevolent

All loving


Reasons for the design argument

Natural selection doesn't account for our ability to create art, literature or music, which have no evolutionary purpose, this suggests we were designed
God is beyond human understanding, therefore we could not understand why evil and suffering exists in the world
The complex symmetry of space, the fact that the earth orbits the sun at the correct distance


What is the first cause argument

Everything in the universe was caused to exist. The universe exists so it must have a cause. It had to be caused by something eternal, only God is eternal, therefore God caused the universe. Which means that God exists


What did Aquinas say about the first cause argument

The universe had a beginning
Things can't cause themselves to exist
The universe must have been caused to exist by something outside the universe
The first cause must be God
Therefore, God exists


Reasons against the first cause argument

Depends on the universe having a beginning
What caused God?
We can't prove that the cause was God
Big bang theory says that the universe started from a random and spontaneous event


Reasons for the first cause arguments

Only God is outside of time and space, and therefore able to create the universe
Islam accepts scientific theories and says that they support Allah both existing and being the first cause of the universe
All religious scriptures refer to God beginning the universe-can't all be wrong


What is the miracles argument

Something outside normal experience has happened, and there is no natural explanation for it. Only God is outside nature and could have caused this. Therefore God exists


Key details of the miracles argument

Events that can't be explained, break the laws of nature or show God's power and love


Examples of miracles

Jesus turning water into wine
Fabrice Mwamba's heart attack and survival
Miracle of stairwell B during 9/11


Reasons against the miracles arguments

Miracles are difficult to prove
Why are only some people helped?
There could be scientific explanations for 'miracles' in the form of new discoveries


Reasons for the miracles arguments

Too many accounts of miracles for them not to be real
Often investigated by religious believers and sceptics
Don't always happen to believers


What is the religious experience argument

I have experienced God, therefore God exists


Key details about the religious experience

Prayer and Meditation (Pentecostalism)


Reasons against the religious experience argument

Difficult to prove as genuine
Could somebody be mistaken or misled?
If you are a theist already you may take an ordinary experience as a religious experience


Reasons for the religious experience argument

The influence of religious experiences are so great they must be genuine
People have direct personal proof of the existence of God, which is enough for them for them to believe that God exists
Sometimes a group of people have the same religious experience at once; they can't all be hallucinating


What is the morality argument

People have an inbuilt sense of morality, which comes from a source outside of them. This source is God, therefore God exists

We listen to our morals over our desires. We are not always rewarded for good morality in life, we must get a reward after death, this must be going to heaven, therefore God exists.


Key details about the morality argument

Morals are our sense of right and wrong. Sometimes we follow the rules to know right from wrong, sometimes we listen to our conscience and sometimes we think about the consequences