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Flashcards in Believing In God Deck (39):
1

Definition of omnipotent

All powerful

2

What is omniscient

All knowing

3

What is a theist

Someone who believes in God

4

What is an agnostic

Someone who is not sure if God exists

5

What is an atheist

Someone who doesn't believe in God

6

What is a monotheist

Someone who believes in only one God

7

What is a polytheist

Someone who believes in many gods, or forms of the same God

8

Definition of omnipresent

Everywhere

9

What is the design argument

The universe is too complex to have just happened by chance. It must have been designed. Only God is powerful enough to design a universe. Therefore God exists.

10

Evidence for the design argument

Beauty in nature
The eye
DNA
Fibonacci sequences within nature

11

What did Aquinas say about the design argument

The universe needs an intelligent being to keep it in order. Only God is powerful enough. Therefore God exists

12

What did Paley say about the design argument

If you found a watch but didn't know what it was, you would have to conclude it was so complex and fit for purpose it would have to have been designed. The world is the same, and only God is powerful enough to be the designer. Therefore God exists

13

Reasons against the design argument

Evolution could account for apparent design (Darwin)
Cruelty and suffering exists in the world, and an all loving designer would not have included it
How can attributes such as love and forgiveness be designed - yet they exist

14

What is benevolent

All loving

15

Reasons for the design argument

Natural selection doesn't account for our ability to create art, literature or music, which have no evolutionary purpose, this suggests we were designed
God is beyond human understanding, therefore we could not understand why evil and suffering exists in the world
The complex symmetry of space, the fact that the earth orbits the sun at the correct distance

16

What is the first cause argument

Everything in the universe was caused to exist. The universe exists so it must have a cause. It had to be caused by something eternal, only God is eternal, therefore God caused the universe. Which means that God exists

17

What did Aquinas say about the first cause argument

The universe had a beginning
Things can't cause themselves to exist
The universe must have been caused to exist by something outside the universe
The first cause must be God
Therefore, God exists

18

Reasons against the first cause argument

Depends on the universe having a beginning
What caused God?
We can't prove that the cause was God
Big bang theory says that the universe started from a random and spontaneous event

19

Reasons for the first cause arguments

Only God is outside of time and space, and therefore able to create the universe
Islam accepts scientific theories and says that they support Allah both existing and being the first cause of the universe
All religious scriptures refer to God beginning the universe-can't all be wrong

20

What is the miracles argument

Something outside normal experience has happened, and there is no natural explanation for it. Only God is outside nature and could have caused this. Therefore God exists

21

Key details of the miracles argument

Events that can't be explained, break the laws of nature or show God's power and love

22

Examples of miracles

Jesus turning water into wine
Fabrice Mwamba's heart attack and survival
Miracle of stairwell B during 9/11

23

Reasons against the miracles arguments

Miracles are difficult to prove
Why are only some people helped?
There could be scientific explanations for 'miracles' in the form of new discoveries

24

Reasons for the miracles arguments

Too many accounts of miracles for them not to be real
Often investigated by religious believers and sceptics
Don't always happen to believers

25

What is the religious experience argument

I have experienced God, therefore God exists

26

Key details about the religious experience

Numinous
Prayer and Meditation (Pentecostalism)
Conversion
Miracles

27

Reasons against the religious experience argument

Difficult to prove as genuine
Could somebody be mistaken or misled?
If you are a theist already you may take an ordinary experience as a religious experience

28

Reasons for the religious experience argument

The influence of religious experiences are so great they must be genuine
People have direct personal proof of the existence of God, which is enough for them for them to believe that God exists
Sometimes a group of people have the same religious experience at once; they can't all be hallucinating

29

What is the morality argument

People have an inbuilt sense of morality, which comes from a source outside of them. This source is God, therefore God exists

We listen to our morals over our desires. We are not always rewarded for good morality in life, we must get a reward after death, this must be going to heaven, therefore God exists.

30

Key details about the morality argument

Morals are our sense of right and wrong. Sometimes we follow the rules to know right from wrong, sometimes we listen to our conscience and sometimes we think about the consequences

31

Reasons against the morality argument

There is no proof that morals are anything but rules built up over time by society
Morals serve evolution - they keep societies together when food is scarce and are part of the survival process
Not everyone feels guilt and some people feel it more than others
Relative morals show different morals

32

Reasons for the morality arguments

If morality helps us survive, maybe it is part of Gods design and plan
Morals tell us how to behave so we are rewarded after death

33

Definition of morality

A sense of right and wrong that helps guide people's behaviour

34

Definition of absolute morality

Certain actions are wrong no matter what the consequences e.g. Murder

35

Definition of relative morality

Some actions are performed using rules or laws as a guide e.g. Stoned to death for adultery

36

Arguments against the existence of God

The importance of faith
Science
Presence of evil and suffering

37

How does the importance of faith disprove the existence of God

It is very difficult to accept any of the five arguments if you don't already believe in God
Atheists do not have faith, and therefore will always be able to come up with counter arguments against theist arguments
Agnostics would say that they need evidence to prove whether God exists or not, not faith

38

Why does science disprove the existence of God

Science explains things that people used God to explain in the past

39

Why does the presence of evil and suffering disprove the existence of God

Because evil and suffering exists in the world, which means that either God does not exist or he's not as powerful as theists would like to believe
Cruelty in the animal kingdom and natural disasters are evidence of poor design
People do not always behave in moral way, creating moral evil.