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Flashcards in Crime and punishment Deck (66):

What is crime

An offence punishable by law


What are bye-laws

Laws that are made by local councillors


What are parliamentary laws

Laws made by the government


What are non-indictable offences

Minor crimes that are usually dealt with in a magistrates court


What are indictable offences

Serious crimes dealt with in criminal courts with a judges and jury


What are crimes against the person

Crimes that cause direct harm to people e.g. murder


What are crimes against the property

Crimes that damage people's property e.g. arson


What are crimes against the state

These crimes potentially harm everyone in the country e.g. terrorism


Crimes against religion

These rules are set by religion and only apply to its followers. They may or not be classified as crime.


What causes crime

Lack of education and qualifications
Abusive and violent parents
Broken homes
Drug, gambling or alcohol addiction
Periods of high unemployment
Gang rivalry
Violence portrayed in films/TV
Mental illness


What are the three types of Crime

Crime against the person
Crime against property
Crime against the state


What are the 6 aims of punishments



What is blasphemy

Insulting God or sacred things and the making of images of God. It is also a religious offence, illegal in Ireland, Afghanistan and Pakistan.


What is a sin

Breaking a religious and moral law


What is a duty

A moral or legal obligation


What is a responsibility

A duty to care for or having control over something or someone


What is a conscience

The inner feeling you are doing right or wrong


What is protection

Keeping the public from being harmed, threatened and injured by criminals


What is retribution

Getting revenge and giving criminals what they deserve


What is deterrence

Putting people off committing crimes


What is reformation

Changing someone's behaviour for the better


What is vindication

Showing offenders that the law is right and they will be punished if they don't follow it


What is reparation

An aim of punishment designed to help an offender to put something back into society to help make up for their crime


What is forgiveness

Showing grace and mercy and pardoning someone for what they have done wrong


What is repentance

Being truly sorry and changing your behaviour so as not to do the same again


Who is a young offender

A person under 18 who has broken the law


What is imprisonment

When a person is put in jail for committing a crime


How are young offenders treated if the offence is minor

They are dealt with without court involvement e.g. the police can use warnings, ASBOs or child safety orders. The aim is to prevent further offences and give support from an early age


How are young offenders treated if the offence is serious

A hearing is held in a youth court. If found guilty, they may be fined, given a reparation order or receive a curfew.
The most serious cases are heard in a Crown Court and the young person is held in custody. If they're found guilty, they would be sent to a:
Secure training centre or,
Secure children's home or,
Young offender institution


What is a curfew

A certain time you have to be home


What is a youth court

A part of the Magistrate's Court dealing with under 18's


What is a Secure training centre

A purpose built centre for young offenders which have a focus on education and rehabilitation


What are Secure children's homes

Homes run by the local authority social services department and focus on attending to the physical, emotional and behavioural needs of the young people they accommodate


What are Young offender institutions

Institutions run by the Prison Service and accommodate 15 - 21 year olds. Those under 18 are held in separate juvenile wings


What are the advantages of prison

Prison acts as a deterrent and ensures the law is respected (vindication)
Protects society from dangerous and violent criminals
Gives offenders a chance to reflect on their actions and decide to change
It isolates those who deserve such punishment from their family and friends (retribution)


What are the disadvantages of prison

70% reoffend, showing the system is not working
Children are deprived of a parent through no fault of their own
Prison is expensive, costing taxpayers £30,000/ year to keep one person
It is a school for crime


What is the death penalty

A form of capital punishment, where a prisoner is put to death for crimes committed


What are arguments for capital punishments

Cheaper alternative than keeping murders alive in prison
Meets aim of retribution - terrorists and murderers deserve to die, ('an eye for an eye' - Exodus)
Deters people from doing horrendous crimes because they know if they are caught they will die


What are arguments against capital punishments

Innocent people have accidentally been executed
Only God has the right to take life
Reformed criminals can be an enormous influence for good
Executing terrorists would make them martyrs & provoke further atrocities


Why do some Christians support capital punishment

'Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed' - Genesis
They see the threat of the death penalty as a deterrent to prevent serious crime e.g. in the USA, many Christians support the use of lethal injections and the electric chair


Why do some Christians not support capital punishment

No proof capital punishment is a better deterrent
An innocent person could be wrongly killed. Removes the possibility of repentance which is emphasised in Luke
Only God can take life


What are the different forms of punishment

Community service
Electronic tagging
Life imprisonment
Early release


What is community service

A punishment for offenders who have committed crimes for which they could've gone to prison for months rather than years. The aim is to combine punishment with changing offender's behaviour and making amends to the community


Advantages of community service

Cheaper than prison (1/10th of price)
Less contact with other criminals
Greater success rate with reformation


Disadvantages of community service

Seen as a soft option by some
Criminals may still continue to break the law


What is electronic tagging

Tagging prisoners who are serving 3-4 months but have been released early


Advantages of electronic tagging

Cheaper than prison (£2,000 approx./year)
Stops sex offenders from going within 100 yards of a school or park
Only 2% of offenders have committed more crimes while tagged


What are fines

Money paid as punishment for a crime


What is probation

When offenders are given suspended sentences, which means that if they get into trouble again within a specific time they will go to prison. A probation officer will give them advice and help them obey the law on a weekly basis


Advantages of probation

Offenders can continue working
They still have their freedom, family and friends and can receive support to reform


What is parole

When a prisoner is released without having completed their sentence because they have behaved well and accepted their guilt


Advantages of parole

Offender gets second chance and opportunity to become a law abiding citizen


Disadvantages of parole

Victim of original crime may feel this is unfair; although the offender has shown good behaviour in prison, they may not on the outside and reoffend


What is life imprisonment

A prison sentence that (theoretically) keeps people in prison until they die. However, the average sentence is about 15 years before the criminal becomes eligible for parole


Advantage of life imprisonment

The prospect of release does give hope to prisoners and reduces bad psychological impacts on them


Disadvantage of life imprisonment

Victims and their relatives may not be happy that for example, a convicted murderer may be released one day


Advantage of early release

The offender gets a second chance and a opportunity to become law abiding


Disadvantages of early release

The victim may feel it is unfair
The offender may reoffend


What is prison reform

There are several organisations e.g. Prison Reform Trust which are trying to improve conditions for prisoners. They feel that overcrowded prisons do not help prisoners reform and think that prisons should just be for the worst offenders, rather than those who commit minor crimes or have mental problems


Why do some people disagree with giving prisoners better conditions

They say prisons will become like holiday camps and will no longer be a deterrent too crime.
Hindus encourage education and meditation as a way of repairing the minds of lawbreakers.
Families of those in prison need more support instead


Buddhist attitudes to punishment

Important to protect society
Against retribution (First Moral Precept)
Believe in reformation and protection


Christian attitudes to punishment

Against retribution
Support vindication and reparation
Stress forgiveness & reformation


Hindu attitudes to punishment

Stress reformation for the importance of karma (to prevent bad karma)
4 main aims are: reformation, retribution, deterrence & protection


Muslim attitudes to punishment

Stress the importance of deterrence so there is a lot of public humiliation
Victim satisfaction is very important
The law also needs to be respected


Jewish attitudes to punishment

Find deterrence very important
Criminals also need to repent and ask for God's forgiveness (reformation)


Sikh attitudes to punishment

Against retribution
Support protection and reformation