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Flashcards in Medical Ethics Deck (50)
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1

Definition of morality

A system of ethics about what is right and wrong

2

Definition of ethics

The theory relating to morality

3

Definition of absolute morality

What is morally right and wrong in any circumstance at all times

4

Definition of sanctity of life

Life is sacred because it is God given and should be protected and respected by all

5

Definition of value of life

The value of a person over and above physical value

6

Definition of quality of life

A measure of fulfilment

7

When do most Christians and Muslims believe life begins at

Conception - when the sperm meets the egg and this is part of a bigger plan made by God. They believe it is from this moment that it is a human life and has rights

8

When do some Muslims believe life begins at

After the foetus is 120 days old as that is when they receive a soul - but they also believe there is potential life at conception

9

What does Genesis 1:27 say

'So God created human beings, making them to be like himself ...' - This argues that people shouldn't have plastic surgery or be cloned

10

What does Mathew 22:39 say

'The second most commandment is like it: 'love your neighbour as you love yourself'' - This shows you should accept others choices e.g. if they want to be transgender

11

What does Ecclesiastes 3:1 say

'Everything that happens in this world happens at the time God chooses' - This argues that you shouldn't have IVF

12

What does Exodus 20:3 say

'Do not commit murder' - This argues that you shouldn't commit murder

13

What does the 1990 Human Fertilisation & Embryology Act

You are not allowed to keep an embryo after the primitive streak is visible (14 days after fertilisation)

14

What is IVF

Creating a human life outside the body of the mother by using a petri dish to put sperm into an egg

15

What is egg donation

Harvesting several eggs from a donor woman. They can be used for a woman to make her own baby via IVF or they can be given to another woman who needs IVF

16

What is AIH (Artificial Insemination by Husband)

The sperm of the husband's and wife's egg are fertilised in a petri dish in a lab. The embryo is created outside the mother's body and then inserted artificially back in her womb

17

What is surrogacy

A substitute mother who carries a baby for a couple. The baby may have been created by IVF. It is given to a couple to bring up

18

What is AID (Artificial Insemination by Donor)

Using the donor sperm of a man who is not the lady's partner to fertilise the egg

19

What is embryo donation

A couple can receive a fertilised embryo, because they are unable to make their own baby naturally. The baby is not biologically related to the parents who bring it up

20

Reasons for IVF

Anything that creates new life is good
It allows homosexual couples to have a baby
God told Adam & Eve to have a lot of children (that means by any means necessary)
Infertility is a medical problem that can be treated like any other illness. God has given doctors the skills to resolve this problem
It is a personal choice that should be accepted (Mathew 22:39)

21

Reasons against IVF

Only God decides when you should have a baby (Ecclesiastes 3:1)
People should adopt a child instead and give them a better life
Using donor sperm is like adultery. You are bringing in a 3rd person into the relationship
Disposing embryos is like murder (Exodus 20:3)
Sex is the only way you should create children, anything else is unnatural
Childlessness could be due to bad karma, IVF goes against this

22

What is transplant surgery

The removal of a faulty organ replaced by a healthy organ taken from a donor (usually after death)

23

What organs and tissues can be donated

Eyes/cornea
Lungs
Liver
Intestine
Heart / Heart valves
Kidneys
Pancreas
Skin
Bone marrow
Tendons
Femoral & Saphenous veins

24

Definition of cloning

The exact genetic replica is created of something already living

25

What is therapeutic cloning

Copying biological material from stem cells to use in research to find treatments for a range of disease

26

What is reproductive cloning

The creation of an identical copy of any organism

27

Reasons for cloning

People have a right to choose and free will is God given
God inspires people to develop technology to benefit mankind
It helps with embryonic research which could help sick or infertile people
It is compassionate and improves people's quality of life

28

Reasons against cloning

A cloned person may not have a soul
It results in the disposal of embryos (murder - Exodus 20:3)
It is against nature and the way we were created by God
It may encourage scientists to make further advances that are even more unacceptable

29

Christian beliefs on cloning

Christians believe that human beings are created in the image of God and, therefore are unique and shouldn't be copied
Human life is something to be valued and not treated like a commodity to be bought and sold - this could happen & be developed - people may soon be able to replicate themselves

30

What is Genetic Engineering

Changing or destroying parts of a human's genetic makeup in the embryonic stages of life