Beta-Lactam Antibiotics And Other Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Beta-Lactam Antibiotics And Other Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors > Flashcards

Flashcards in Beta-Lactam Antibiotics And Other Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors Deck (32):
0

Mention 2 penase-susceptible narrow spectrum penicillins.

1. Penicillin G
2. Penicillin V

1

Mention 2 penase-resistant narrow spectrum penicillins.

1. Nafcillin
2. Oxacillin

2

What is the clinical use of narrow spectrum penase-susceptible penicillins?

1. Streptococcal + meningococcal infections.
2. Syphilis

3

What is the clinical use of narrow spectrum penase-resistant penicillins?

Staphylococcal infections

4

What are the pharmacokinetics of narrow spectrum penicillins?

1. Rapid renal elimination
2. Short half-lives necessitate frequent dosing
3. Some biliary clearance of nafcillin/oxacillin

5

What are the toxicities of penicillins?

1. HSR in 5-6% of cases.
2. GI distress
3. Maculopapular rash (ampicillin)

6

Mention 4 wide spectrum (+/-) penicillinase inhibitors penicillins?

1. Ampicillin
2. Amoxicillin
3. Piperacillin
4. Ticarcillin

7

What is the clinical use of wider spectrum (+/-) penicillins?

1. Greater activity vs gram(-) bacteria
2. All penicillins (and cephalosporins) are bactericidal

8

Mention a 1st gen cephalosporin.

Cephalexin

9

What is the clinical use of 1st gen cephalosporins?

Skin, soft tissue, and UT infections.

10

Mention 3 2nd gen cephalosporins.

1. Cefotetan
2. Cefoxitin
3. Cefuroxime

11

What is the clinical use of 2nd gen cephalosporins?

More active vs S.pneumoniae and H.influenza; B.fragilis (cefotetan).

12

Mention 3 third gen cephalosporins.

1. Ceftiaxone
2. Cefotaxime
3. Ceftazidime

13

What is the clinical use of 3rd gen cephalosporins?

Many uses including pneumonia, meningitis, and gonorrhea.

14

Mention a 4th gen cephalosporin.

Cefipime

15

What is the clinical use of 4th gen cephalosporins?

Broad activity; beta-lactamase-stable.

16

What are the general pharmacokinetics of cephalosporins?

1. Oral use for older drugs
2. Mostly IV for newer drugs
3. Renal elimination
4. Short-half-lives
5. 3rd gen cephalosporins enter the CNS

17

What are the toxicities of cephalosporins?

1. HSR (2%)
2. Assume complete cross-reactivity between the cephalosporins (partial with penicillins).
3. GI distress

18

Mention 4 carbapenems.

1. Imipenem-cilastatin
2. Doripenem
3. Meropenem
4. Ertapenem

19

What is the clinical use of carbapenems?

Broad spectrum includes some PRSP strains (not MRSA), gram(-) rods, and Pseudomonas sp.

20

What are the pharmacokinetics of carbapenems?

1. Parenteral administration
2. Cilastatin inhibits renal metabolism of imipenem
3. Renal elimination

21

What are the side effects of carbapenems?

1. Partial cross-reactivity with penicillins
2. CNS effects include confusion and seizures

22

Mention the prototype monobactam.

Aztreonam

23

What is the clinical use of aztreonam?

Active only vs gram(-) bacteria: Klepsiella, Pseudomonas, and Serratia spp.

24

What are the pharmacokinetics of aztreonam?

1. Parenteral administration
2. Renal elimination

25

What are the toxicities of aztreonam?

1. GI upsets
2. Headache
3. Vertigo
4. No cross-allerginicity with beta-lactams

26

What is the clinical use of vancomycin and teicoplanin?

Gram(+) activity includes MRSA and PRSP strains.

27

What are the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin and teicoplanin?

1. Parenteral (orally for C.difficile colitis).
2. Renal elimination IV only, long half-life.

28

What are the toxicities of vancomycin and teicoplanin?

"Red-man" syndrome, rare nephrotoxicity.

29

What is the mechanism of daptomycin?

Gram(+) activity:
1. Endocarditis
2. Sepsis

30

What are the pharmacokinetics of daptomycin?

Renal elimination

31

What are the toxicities of daptomycin?

1. Myopathy
2. Monitor CPK weekly

Decks in Pharmacology Class (54):