In 1922, Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party seized power by marching on what Italian city?
In October 1922, Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party marched on Rome led by Mussolini's band of enforcers, the Blackshirts.
As the march approached Rome, Prime Minister Luigi Facta had resigned and King Vittorio Emanuele III named Mussolini as the head of government.
Explain the events that helped Adolf Hitler seize power.
Hitler took advantage of the Weimar Republic's weak government. Germany was in chaos and in an economic depression. The Weimar Republic was blamed for accepting the harsh punishments from the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler promised to provide jobs and rebuild Germany.
Who rose to power in Turkey after the end of World War I?
Mustafa Kemal, who'd risen to fame during the Battle of Gallipoli, seized control of Turkey in the 1920s. After driving the Greeks from Turkey, he deposed the last Ottoman sultan and instituted a secular (non-religious) Turkish republic. Kemal took the name "Ataturk," which means "Father of the Turks."
What did the Balfour Declaration promise?
Announced in 1917, thanks in part to Jewish contributions to the British war efforts, the Balfour declaration announced the intention of the British government to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine, which was then approximately 90% Arab.
In 1923, the leader of Germany's National Socialist Party, _____ _____, attempted to seize power in Munich in an event known as the Beer Hall Putsch.
The National Socialist Party, better known as the Nazi Party, had the support of popular German hero Erich Ludendorff.
The Putsch (German for a sudden attempt to overthrow the government) failed and Hitler was arrested and charged with high treason. During the trial, German newspapers reported Hitler's testimony, enabling him to reach a wide audience with his ideas. Given a short sentence in comfortable quarters at Landsberg Prison, Hitler used his time to compose his book, Mein Kampf.
The refusal to obey unjust laws. Civil Disobedience is the use of non-violent tactics to create change. Boycotting and protests are popular strategies that fit into this category. Gandhi was famous for advocating for such techniques despite encountering violence from the opposition.
What is fascism?
A form of government in which...
- a single dictator has total control and injects feelings of extreme nationalistic pride into the people.
- Imperialism is practiced as leaders advocate for a strong military.
- Censorship is used to control the news.
- Violence and terror are used to instill a sense of blind loyalty to the leader.
- The state controls the economy and the country embraces a policy of strict discipline.
Who was the dominant figure of the Indian National Congress?
The Indian National Congress' most dominant figure was Mohandas Gandhi. In the wake of World War I, Gandhi and the Congress demanded more autonomy from the British rulers of India. Gandhi advocated for freedom but preached a policy of nonviolent resistance.
How did the German people react to the harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
Germans were outraged at the Treaty of Versailles. They resented the clause that fastened the First World War's guilt solely on Germany and felt it unduly harsh given that by the War's end there was not a single Allied soldier in German territory.
Other sources of irritation included German territory that had been given to Poland and the large reparations payments.
In 1935, Germany violated the Treaty of Versailles by taking what action?
In 1935, Germany began to rearm, developing tanks, planes, and submarines. This violated the Treaty of Versaille which indicated that Germany was not allowed to militarize. This was one of many ways in which Hitler violated the Treaty.
As one of his first acts, Hitler withdrew Germany from what international organization?
In 1933, Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations.
In 1935, President Franklin Roosevelt announced his Good Neighbor Policy. To whom was the policy directed?
The Good Neighbor Policy was directed toward the nations of Latin America. Throughout the early 20th century, the United States had intervened directly in Latin America affairs.
For instance, the United States had enacted a protectorate over Cuba and had occupied Haiti. Roosevelt's Good Neighbor Policy was designed to minimize the United States' direct presence in Latin America.
How did the Great Depression affect the Latin American states?
Most of the Latin American states were dependent upon the United States for their monoculture export economies. For instance, Brazil grew 75% of the world's coffee in the 1930s and sold most of it to American consumers.
With the U.S. economy shattered, exports were cut nearly in half. In the wake of economic collapse, many of the Latin American governments turned to fascist and totalitarian governments.
Who was Gandhi's chief political ally?
Gandhi's chief political ally was Jawaharlal Nehru. During the 1930s, Gandhi became far more of the spiritual leader of Indian liberation, advocating Hindu principles. Nehru focused on the political side of things.
In 1935, Britain granted India its own constitution. In 1937, Gandhi and Nehru began campaigning for the British to leave India permanently. In 1947, after World War II, Britain withdrew from India.
What form of government prevailed in the Latin American states in the 1930s and 1940s?
Most Latin American states during the period were ruled by dictators, most of whom governed from the far right. These dictators, such as Brazil's Getúlio Vargas and Cuba's Fulgencio Batista, were supported by the military.
What were the League of Nations' mandates?
After World War I, the former Ottoman states in the Middle East were placed under French and British control under the supervision of the League of Nations.
The French took control over Syria and Lebanon. Britain controlled Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine.
In 1911, a revolution in _____ ousted President Porfirio Díaz.
For the next 10 years, Mexico was chaotic as rivals, including Pancho Villa, jockeyed for power. In 1920, the military seized control, although violence continued until 1929. A constitution was created and the land was redistributed to the peasants.
Like the Indian National Congress, the _____ _____ advocated British withdrawal from India. Unlike the National Congress, it called for the creation of a separate Muslim state within India called Pakistan.
The League was formed in 1930 as an organization advocating for Indian independence. Although India had a long tradition of Hindu and Muslim co-operation, the League and the Congress never worked well together.
After Indian independence in 1947, the League formed the separate nation of Pakistan. India and Pakistan continue to have a tense relationship.
What were the Nuremberg Laws?
Announced during the Nazi Party's rally in the German city of Nuremberg, the Nuremberg Laws removed the citizenship of all German Jews and prohibited all marriages and sexual intercourse between Jews and Germans.
How did the French and Belgian governments react to Germany's inability to make its reparations payment in 1922?
When Germany proved unable to make its 1922 reparations payment, French and Belgian forces occupied Germany's Ruhr Valley, where much of Germany's heavy industry took place.
Movement in the 1920s and 1930s to unite all Arab people based on their shared heritage. Arab nationalists wanted to rid the Middle East of foreign control and influence
At least 200,000 Chinese civilians died in the Rape of _____ in 1937.
In 1937, the Japanese invaded China and by December had laid siege to Nanking. The Japanese ruthlessly slaughtered civilians, even going so far as to engage in biological warfare.
In 1921, the Allies presented their first reparations demand to Germany, totaling some 132 billion gold marks. How did Germany respond?
The reparations demand required payment in gold or non-German currency and were far more than the entirety of Germany's gold and non-currency holdings.
To meet the demand, Germany began printing vast sums of money with which to purchase foreign currency. Hyperinflation set in and the German mark (the form of German currency before the euro) fell from 8.4 marks to the dollar in 1921 to 4.2 trillion marks to the dollar in 1924.
Who was Reza Khan and what change did he help facilitate?
An army officer who overthrew the ruler of Iran in 1925 and set up a new form of government that modernized and westernized Iran, trying to make it fully independent and free from the foreign rule. Infrastructure was developed and the army was strengthened.
Western alphabet and dress were adopted and secular schools were formed. Secular law replaced traditional Islamic law and women received new rights.
What Italian proved to be fascism's most effective proponent?
Benito Mussolini rose to power in the early 1920s by promoting fascist solutions for Italy's problems. Mussolini appealed to Italian nationalism, promised to restructure the Italian army and to revitalize the Italian economy by promoting syndicates between workers and capitalists guided by the Italian government.
Mussolini proved popular on both sides of the Atlantic during the 1920s and early 1930s; several of his ideas were adopted by members of the Roosevelt Administration.
In 1925, _____ _____ deposed the Qajar rulers of Persia, renaming the country Iran.
Much like Ataturk, Shah Pahlavi sought to secularize Iran. Pahlavi instituted economic and educational reforms.
What was the Stab-in-the-Back myth?
The Stab-in-the-Back myth was popularized by German conservatives in the 1920s and 1930s and contended that it was not battlefield defeat that led to Germany losing World War I. Instead, it was the actions of German liberals on the Home Front.
German politicians such as Hitler also tied the Stab-in-the-Back myth to the activities of purportedly disloyal German Jews during the war.
The name used to refer to the new German state under Hitler. It was a totalitarian state based on only one political party (The Nazis) and limited civil rights.
Violence was used to oppress dissenting forces. Businesses were put under government control and many people were employed by large public works programs. The standard of living rose.
Totalitarianism is a form of government in which the government controls all aspects of society.
Totalitarian governments are usually headed by a leader who relies on charisma and brute force to control the activity of its citizens.
What term best describes the United States' foreign policy toward Europe in the 1930s?
During the 1930s, America had an isolationist foreign policy was isolationist.
Isolationism is a foreign policy under which one isolates one's country from economic and diplomatic relations with other countries. Isolationists typically devote their entire efforts to their own internal advancement.