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Which English scientist popularized the Scientific Method?

Francis Bacon popularized the Scientific Method in the early 1600s. The Scientific Method is based on inductive (rather than deductive) reasoning.

A hypothesis is generated based on direct observation of a phenomenon, and then the hypothesis is tested with further experiments.

Bacon advocated empiricism, a theory that asserted that knowledge came from sensory experience.


What invention did Galileo use for astronomical observation?

Galileo used the telescope to conduct systematic observations of the planets, proving that the Sun was the center of the universe, not the Earth.

In addition to discovering moons orbiting Jupiter and the rings of Saturn, Galileo was able to confirm for himself that Copernicus's heliocentric model was correct.

Galileo publicized his findings but was forced to recant them in 1633 by the Catholic Church, which was still teaching the geocentric universe model. 


Explain the idea of a geocentric universe.

A geocentric universe is a planetary system under which the Earth is the center of the galaxy; all the planets and the Sun revolve around the Earth. 

The belief in a geocentric universe prevailed from ancient times until it was challenged by Copernicus and Galileo.


Who was Nicolaus Copernicus?

Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer, who published On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres in 1543.

Copernicus is credited with the heliocentric theory,  in which the sun was the center of the solar system and all the planets revolved around it in a circular path.

Copernicus's work, with its emphasis on observation and mathematics, gave birth to the Scientific Revolution. 


_____ _____ proposed the law of universal gravitation.

Isaac Newton

Newton published his Principia in 1687, one of the most important works in the history of science. His mathematically derived theories led to the development of calculus and physics.

Newton's primary achievement was to take all the scientific advances of his day and tie them into a single united theory backed by mathematical proof, which was known as Newtonian physics. Newton's theory prevailed until Einstein developed his theories of relativity in the early 1900s.


Who was Rene Descartes?

Rene Descartes challenged the idea that new knowledge should be made fit to existing ideas.

Emphasized the idea of reasoning.

Believed that reason, rather than tradition, should be the way to discover the truth.


Scientific Method

The Scientific Method is a system for solving problems that emphasized the collection of data in order to test a hypothesis.  The Scientific Method relies on observation and experimentation as opposed to blindly following tradition teachings and customs.

The scientific method sparked a revolutionary period in history where people began using science to explain the world, rather than blindly following traditional practices passed down by the ruling elite. 


How did the Scientific Revolution overturn previous concepts of the Universe?

Scientists during this time period began to break away from traditional beliefs and practices and were influenced by the critical spirit of the Renaissance period.

The Scientific Revolution was highlighted by famous individuals such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo, Isaac Newton, and Rene Descartes. The theories of these scientists and the practice of breaking tradition led to radical change.


Explain the heliocentric model of the universe.

Nicolaus Copernicus challenged the belief that the Earth was the center of the universe. Copernicus suggested that the universe was heliocentric, or sun-centered. The heliocentric model states that the planets revolve around the sun. 

Although Copernicus did not publish his work until after his death, he paved the way for future scientific thought that would question the Chruch and traditional beliefs.