At the _____ _____ in 1884-85, the Great Powers set in place the rules for African colonialism.
The Berlin Conference was an attempt by the Great European Powers to divide up and colonize Africa evenly, reducing the possibility of war between the interested parties. At the time, Germany had very few colonial possessions. But by 1914, Germany would be the third-largest colonial power.
What made African imperialism attractive to Western European nations in the closing decades of the 19th century?
Known as the "Scramble for Africa." Africa is plentiful in many of the raw materials that were necessary to feed the manufacturing industry, such as rubber, cotton, and copper.
What conflict erupted in South Africa in 1899?
In 1899, war broke out between the Boer Republics and British South Africa, arising out of British attempts to control the region's rich gold and diamond mines.
The Boers strongly resisted the British intrusion, and resistance only collapsed when the British concentrated Boer civilians into camps known as "concentration camps" where some 27,000 Boer civilians died.
Who were the Boers?
The Boers were Dutch colonists in South Africa who arrived in the 1600s. In the 1830s, after the British took control of South Africa, the Boers moved inland in what was termed The Great Trek. In the 1850s, the Boers formally established two countries: the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
What rebellion against foreigners broke out in China in 1900?
In 1900, Boxers (martial artists who exercised in Chinese gymnasiums) attacked foreigners throughout China, slaughtering missionaries and laying siege to European diplomats.
The rebellion was only put down when an eight-nation army invaded China and subdued the Boxers. The Chinese were forced to pay heavy reparations.
Which commercial enterprise represented British interests in India prior to the 1850s?
Prior to the 1850s, the British ruled India indirectly through the semi-private British East India Company.
Starting in the mid-1700s, under the directorship of Sir Robert Clive, the Company engaged in a war against the Mughal Empire, defeating it in 1764.
Following the 1857 Indian Mutiny, what change took place in the government of the Raj?
In 1858, the British government took over direct rule of India from the British East India Company. For nearly a century, India would be the jewel of the British Empire.
What were the effects of British rule in India during the 1800s?
British rule in India was mixed. The British exploited the country's cotton production for their own gain and consequently drove local manufacturers out of business.
British-appointed tax collectors, known as zamindars, overtaxed the peasantry and even provoked a famine that saw one-third of Indian peasants living under British control perish.
Nevertheless, in an effort to increase their economic interests, the British developed modern roads and canals, established an education system (in part to create natives loyal to Britain), and barred the sati (the ritual practice of burning a widow alive at her husband's funeral) and the thuggee (the assassination of travelers in honor of the goddess Kali).
During the 1800s, virtually every major European power (and some of the minor ones) took control of cities on the Chinese coasts, which they were able to rule under their own authority, rather than Chinese law. What were these territories called?
These territories were known as concessions and served as ports through which the European nations could import goods into China.
Examples of concessions include Hong Kong, which was under British control; Tsingtao, under the control of the Germans; and Macau, under the control of the Portuguese.
Europeans were allowed to control large portions of the Chinese coast primarily due to internal Chinese weakness.
How did Germany fare in the Scramble for Africa?
While Germany established a large colonial territory, it was generally scattered in regions in which the other powers were not interested.
Germans could be harsh rulers; their suppression of the Herero revolt in German Southwest Africa (modern-day Namibia) is widely acknowledged as genocide. Germany also had colonies in Togo, and on the African east coast.
Identify the main reasons why countries practiced imperialism.
Several important factors combined to lead to the development of the new imperialism.
Economic: The need for natural resources, the need for new markets, a place for growing populations to settle, and place to invest profits.
Politics and the military: The new territories would allow for increased trade, the establishment of navy bases, power and security of a global empire, and the spirit of nationalism.
Social: Imperialism helped spread Christianity, Western civilization, and the belief that the West is the best.
Science and Invention: New weapons, new medicines, and improvements to naval vessels helped countries explain their borders.
Imperialism is a foreign policy aimed at placing foreign countries under the permanent control of the imperializing force in order to increase access to new markets market and raw materials.
Identify the impact that imperialism had on all parties involved.
Imperialism had a number of short-term and long-term effects.
Short term effects:
-Large numbers of Asians and Africans came under foreign rule.
-Local economies became dependent on industrialized powers.
-Individuals and groups resisted European domination.
-Western culture spread to new regions.
-Traditional political units were disrupted or destroyed.
-Famines occurred in lands where farmers grew export crops for imperialist nations in place of food for local use.
Long Term Effects:
- Western culture continued to influence much of the world.
-Transportation, education, and medical care improved.
-Resistance to imperial rule evolved into nationalist movements.
-Many economies became dependent on single cash crops grown for export.
Effects on Europe and the World:
-The West discovered new crops, food, and other products.
-Westerners were introduced to new cultural influences.
-Competition for empires created and increased conflict between imperialist powers. These conflicts sometimes led to war.
-The industrial nations controlled a new global economy.
What led to the Indian Mutiny in 1857?
In 1857, Sepoys (Indian troops serving the British East India Company) were issued new rifles with greased cartridges. A false rumor attributed the grease to pig and cow fat, which would be unclean to Hindus and Muslims.
Internal revolts arising out of the cartridges rapidly turned into a nationwide revolt, and thousands of British soldiers, civilians, and natives were massacred.
In 1858, British soldiers and Sepoys loyal to the Raj retook control, but the mutiny was a sharp shock to British confidence in Indian loyalty.
What reforms were adopted during the reign of Japanese Emperor Meiji?
Emperor Meiji established a constitutional monarchy, which included a parliament. Meiji reduced the power of the samurai and dispatched men of the upper class to the United States and Europe to study industrial science, economics, and military science.
Japan began rapid westernization and industrialization. Since Japan lacked the coal required to fuel steam engines, they began a policy of imperialism in order to obtain it.
Describe the Meiji Restoration in Japan.
The term Meiji Restoration refers to the imperial powers exercised by the Japanese Emperor Meiji after the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate, beginning in 1867.
Under Meiji, the Japanese adopted a strong internal policy adopting Western culture and technology as a means of preserving the country from Western dominance.
What was the profession of the first Europeans to explore the interior of Africa in the mid-1800s?
Most early African explorers were missionaries who sought to spread Christianity in Africa.
The most famous missionary of all was Scotland's David Livingstone, who spent decades in Africa, often disappearing for years at a time.
_____ _____ led a revolution against the Ottoman Empire in Egypt in the 1850s.
Ali's revolution was largely successful, although the Ottoman Empire did continue as the nominal ruler over Egypt.
Ali named himself Khedive and dedicated his rule to modernizing Egypt, bringing in Western professionals to build the Egyptian army, introducing large-scale cotton production, and establishing small-scale industrialization.
Ali expanded territorially as well, pushing south into the Sudan and eastward into Syria and Iraq. Only the intervention of France and Britain prevented him from toppling the Ottoman Empire itself.
How did Britain break into Chinese markets beginning in the early 1800s?
In the early 1800s, Chinese markets were closed to European trade until the British began flooding China with Indian-grown opium. Large portions of the Chinese populace became highly addicted to opium, and the British made huge profits.
How did the Chinese attempt to stop the British importation of opium into China?
Beginning in the early 1830s, opium constituted a huge threat to China, affecting both its balance of trade and incapacitating huge numbers of workers in opium-induced lethargy.
To stop the trade, the Chinese attacked the port of Canton, one of the few cities where foreigners were allowed to trade, sparking the Opium War.
British military technology proved superior to that of the Chinese, and the Chinese were defeated and forced to open up more of the country to trade.
Which nation dispatched Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan in 1852?
In 1852, the United States dispatched Commodore Matthew Perry to request that Japan agree to open up its economy to Western trade, a request made more convincing due to the presence of American naval vessels.
It was implied that if the Japanese did not comply with this request, the U.S. would go to war with Japan.
Which country did Japan beat in battle in 1904-1905?
On both land and sea, Japan resoundingly defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, enabling Japan to claim Russia's province of Manchuria.
In addition to the tactical victory, Japanese success was a moral victory as well, establishing Japan's position as one of the world's great powers and marking the first time in the modern era that a European power was defeated by an Asian one.
In the 1870s there was a race to colonize which continent?
The Scramble for Africa was the conquest of virtually the entire continent of Africa between 1880 and 1914, primarily by Britain, France, and Germany. Belgium and Italy played a smaller role, and both the Portuguese and Spanish had existing colonies on the continent.
Although only 10% of Africa had been under European control in 1880, by 1914 only two African states remained independent: Ethiopia and Liberia.
The process by which a country determines its own form of government and formulates its own principles and alliances. Essentially self-determination is the right a nation has to rule itself, free from foreign influence or control.
Which nation defeated China in a war in 1894-95, taking control of Korea and Formosa?
A newly emergent Japan seized Korea and Formosa during the Sino-Japanese War, marking another humiliating defeat for China and a further loss of Chinese territory.
When a country claims exclusive rights to the ports of another country for purposes of trading it is called ______ of _________.
Sphere of Influence
The western powers forced China to sign unequal treaties. The western powers carved out spheres of influence, areas in which those countries claimed exclusive trading rights and privileges with China.
Who led China's Nationalist Party (the Kuomintang) following the collapse of the Qing (or Manchu) Dynasty in 1912?
Sun Yat-Sen led the Nationalist Party, which asserted power over the Chinese Republic that was founded in early 1912. Sun Yat-Sen was the first popularly elected national Chinese politician in the nation's 5,000-year history.
China proved nearly impossible to govern (Sun Yat-Sen was forced to resign by the military), and a series of civil wars tore the country apart between the 1910s and 1940s.
In 1850, the _____ _____ broke out in China, begun by Hong Xiuquan, who'd become convinced that he was Jesus Christ's younger brother.
In a 14-year civil war, Hong attracted a wide group of followers who were opposed to the Manchu Dynasty and eventually controlled a third of China.
After 1860, the Manchu Army was able to defeat Hong's forces in part due to the reorganization of the Manchu Army by European and American soldiers.
Some 25 million Chinese died in the Taiping Rebellion, and large portions of the country were laid waste.
British author Rudyard Kipling wrote of the "White Man's Burden." To what did Kipling refer?
To Kipling and his contemporaries, it was the duty of the white man to extend the benefits of European civilization and the Christian religion to the rest of the world, including Asia and Africa. This notion was prompted by a sense of cultural superiority.
In practice, Europeans often eradicated native cultural practices and beliefs. Nevertheless, some positive social reforms, education, and technological innovations took place in colonized areas.
What family dominated Japanese affairs from 1600 to the middle of the 1800s?
From 1600 until the Meiji Restoration, Japan was under the control of the Tokugawa Shogunate. Ruling from Edo (modern-day Tokyo), the Tokugawa took the title of shogun, broke up the large daimyo estates, and dominated the Emperor.