Armenian Genocide (1914-1918)
The deportation and mass killing of Armenian citizens of the Ottoman Empire during WWI by the Young Turks. Armenians state that this event was an intentional attempt to eliminate the Armenian people and therefore should be classified as an act of genocide.
However, the Turkish government argues that although horrific acts of violence and murder did occur, there was no official policy of extermination implemented by the government against the Armenian people so it, therefore, should not be considered an act of genocide.
Explain the role that Count Camillo Cavour played in the Unification of Italy.
Prime minister of the Italian state of Sardinia, shrewdly formed alliances with France and later with Prussia. Used diplomacy and war to drive Austrian power from Italy. Once the Italian states were free from foreign control, they were prime for unification.
Who was Giuseppe Garibaldi?
Garibaldi was an Italian soldier and nationalist leader. He led guerilla forces that won control of Southern Italy and helped unify the Italian city-states. Garibaldi helped to eventually unite the Northern and Southern parts of Italy, helping to form the united kingdom of Italy.
Who was Giuseppe Mazzini?
Mazzini was an Italian Patriot. He formed the nationalist group called the Young Italy national movement. They fought for the unification of the separate Italian states into one nation. His writings and speeches provided inspiration to the nationalist movement.
Explain the main objective of the Indian National Congress.
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I.
Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor, he organized mass protests demanding self-government and independence for India.
The Indian National Congress called for an independent country free from British rule.
Which two European countries, previously composed of small principalities, unified in the 1860s and 1870s?
In the 1860s and 1870s, Italy and Germany unified in an effort driven primarily by nationalism.
Driven by the conquests of the Kingdom of Sardinia, Italy became a constitutional monarchy.
The kingdom of Prussia dominated German unification, and after a victory in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), the Prussian king was named the German emperor.
Why did the Muslim League form?
A political organization founded in India in 1906 to defend the interests of India’s Muslim minority. Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it attempted to negotiate with the Indian National Congress. In 1940, the League began demanding a separate state for Muslims, which would later be called Pakistan.
Explain the role that Otto von Bismarck played in German Unification.
The Chancellor of Prussia who guided German unification using a policy of “blood and iron.” Bismarck was driven to unify Germany so he could make the Prussian king the ruler of a strong and united German state.
He unified Germany by waging a series of wars and forming alliances with neighboring countries.
Identify the three individuals who played a key role in the Unification of Italy. Describe the main contribution of each and one technique used by all three.
Mazzini - Made the Young Italy Movement to help encourage Italian youth to promote unification.
Cavour - Kicked out the Austrians so that no foreign occupational force could hinder unification.
Garibaldi - A great soldier who led the fight to unite the Northern and Southern Italy.
All three leaders used feelings of _nationalism_ to inspire unification.
How was Germany governed after German unification in 1871?
Led by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Germany became a modern industrialized state _but_ retained a conservative political outlook.
Bismarck dominated the German legislative body (the Reichstag) and proposed generous economic changes, such as retirement pensions and a shorter workday, to ensure the loyalty of the lower classes.
Who were the Young Turks?
A group of liberals who wanted to strengthen the Ottoman Empire and end the threat of Western imperialism. The Young Turks were fiercely nationalistic and were largely responsible for the Armenian Genocide.
What is Zionism?
The movement devoted to building and protecting a Jewish state in Palestine. Zionism was pioneered by Theodor Herzl in 1897 and would later influence the creating of Israel in 1948.