On September 11, 2001, the terrorist organization Al-Qaeda hijacked four airplanes. What were their targets?
Two planes were to fly directly into the World Trade Center buildings in downtown Manhattan. Both attacks were successful, and the Twin Towers fell that morning.
Two other planes were directed at the Pentagon and the White House. While the Pentagon attack was a success, passengers on the fourth plane, Flight 93, fought back and the plane crashed in Pennsylvania.
9-11 marked the deadliest of attacks by Islamist fundamentalists who had long been angry with the United States. Al-Qaeda fighters are global jihadists and view Western influence on the Muslim community to be a threat.
In October 2001, President Bush deployed U.S. forces to invade which country?
Bush authorized the invasion of Afghanistan, which had provided the training ground for the 9-11 terrorists. Many of the NATO nations contributed troops and material support to the campaign.
Who was the African National Congress' most famous leader?
The African National Congress, a South African political party, was led by Nelson Mandela. Mandela opposed apartheid and was jailed for his beliefs from 1964 to 1990. Under intense diplomatic pressure, the South African government freed Mandela in 1990, and in 1994 apartheid ended following Mandela's election as South Africa's president.
Apartheid was a system of racial segregation in South Africa from 1948-1991. Apartheid banned interracial marriages and set 80% of the land aside for the white minority. Non-White Africans were restricted from entering specific areas during specific times and were forced to carry around passbook papers.
Identify some of the key resistance leaders who fought against Apartheid.
Nelson Mandela who formed the African National Congress, Desmond Tutu and F.W. de Klerk were the three major resistance leaders who fought against Apartheid.
Explain what occurred during the Arab Spring movement?
In the Spring of 2011, several Middle Eastern nations engaged in pro-democratic protests and violent uprisings in response to oppressive regimes that limited civil liberties. These uprising had varying levels of success, but overall encourage the spread of democratic reform.
What religious figure came to power in Iran in 1979?
In 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini seized power in Iran after Shah Pahlavi was overthrown. Khomeini established a theocracy, strictly governed by the rules of Islam and opposed to the United States, whom Khomeini termed "The Great Satan."
At the time of Khomeini's takeover, the United States' embassy in Tehran was seized, and Americans were held hostage from 1979 until 1981.
Explain the significance of what occurred at the Camp David Accords.
On September 17, 1978, Israel and Egypt signed a peace treaty which marked the first treaty between Israel and any neighboring Arab nation.
U.S. President Jimmy Carter played a large role in facilitating the treaty. The talks took place at the U.S. Presidential retreat at Camp David in Maryland.
Explain the political objectives of the Contras.
The Contras were Nicaraguan rebel guerilla fighters supported by the United States and U.S. President Ronald Reagan. They were anti-communist forces who opposed the Sandinista government that ruled from 1979-1990.
The spiritual leader of Buddism in Tibet. Prior to the Chinese Communist Revolution, the Dalai Lama was also the spiritual ruler of Tibet. There have been 14 Dalai Lamas, the current one being Tenzin Gyatso.
Explain what occurred in Darfur in the 21st Century.
Mass genocide occurred in Darfur in the 21st Century. It is estimated that more than a million children from the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa tribes were tortured and killed as a result of a civil war that has raged in Sudan's Western Darfur Region.
The Dayton Accords, signed in 1995, resolved what conflict?
The Dayton Accords put an end to the three-and-a-half-year-long war in Bosnia, which arose out of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia following Communism's collapse in Europe.
President Clinton was instrumental in organizing the Accords and serving as mediator. NATO had previously conducted bombing raids to halt the conflict.
How did British and French decolonization in Sub-Saharan Africa differ from Belgian and Portuguese decolonization?
Although there were exceptions (e.g. Rhodesia and South Africa), British and French decolonization in Sub-Saharan Africa went relatively smoothly, with a well-planned decolonization movement aimed at minimizing conflict.
The Portuguese fought hard to maintain their colonies and were only removed after vicious, long-running conflicts. Belgian decolonization was poorly executed. After their withdrawal from Rwanda (1962) and the Congo (1960), the region descended into chaos along tribal lines that led to United Nations intervention.
What political trend took place in Latin America during the 1980s?
During the 1980s, economic improvements and the end of the Cold War led to increased democratization in Latin America.
Argentina had a free election in 1989, In Mexico, the PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) loosened power in 1988, eventually leading to free elections.
_____ was the first Arab state to recognize Israel.
In a deal brokered by President Jimmy Carter, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt's Anwar Sadat in exchange for diplomatic recognition.
During the 1980s, several other Arab states followed suit. Nevertheless, a low-level conflict has continued to simmer in the region.
The systematic murder of a specific group of people based on their ethnic or religious makeup. Ethnic cleansing is another term for genocide.
In 2002, the nations of the European Union adopted the _____ as a form of common currency.
The European Union, which also consists of some cooperative military and political organizations, adopted the euro in part to facilitate international trade among the nations of Western Europe. In recent years, several former Communist countries have joined the organization.
An organization of 28 countries, mainly in Europe, that have similar political and economic goals. The EU was created to reduce conflict and bloodshed between neighboring European nations.
Often referred to as the third agricultural revolution, the Green Revolution occurred in the 1950s and 60s and was marked by the technological innovation predominantly in the developing parts of the world. Mexico and India benefited tremendously from the early movement.
Which disease emerged in Africa in the 1980s and has continued to decimate the continent?
In the 1980s, HIV/AIDS emerged in Africa and has caused millions of deaths.
A form of modern-day slavery in which individuals are captured against their will through force or coercion and transported for the purpose of forced labor or commercial sexual acts.
Why did India and Pakistan split into two separate countries following Britain's departure?
When the British left India in 1947, the former colony split along religious lines, with Pakistan being Muslim and India being Hindu.
Gandhi was assassinated in 1947 by a Hindu extremist who opposed his plan for peaceful coexistence between the two states. His successor, Jawaharlal Nehru, sought to emphasize secularism in India's government.
Tensions between India and Pakistan have remained high since independence.
Identify the objective of the IRA.
The Irish Republican Army is a paramilitary organization that wants to end British rule in Northern Ireland and reunify the nation. They are known for violent terrorist tactics that are designed to convince citizens that the British are unable to provide security for their people.
A movement in the Middle East that strives to implement strict Islamic law and rejects Western secular rules, influence, culture, and ideas.
Explain Jomo Kenyatta's role in Kenyan independence.
Kenyata fought against British rule as an anti-colonial activist. Kenyata was the Prime Minister of Kenya from 1963-1964 and then was elected as the first President from 1694 until his death in 1978.
The Khmer Rouge was the name given to the Communist party followers in Cambodia. They are notoriously known for the horrific acts of genocide that occurred throughout Cambodia on behalf of their leader Pol Pot.
The Khmer Rouge murdered millions of individuals at various "killing fields" between 1975-1979 who were considered enemies of the State.
What nations were known as the "Little Tigers"?
South Korea, Hong Kong, Thailand, and Singapore were known as the "Little Tigers," capitalist countries with strong economies that developed in the 1960s and 1970s. The "Great Tiger" was Japan, which became one of the world's leading economies after World War II.
By 1962, how many Middle Eastern and North African states were controlled by the former colonial powers?
Driven by decolonization during the 1950s and 1960s, Egypt and North Africa had become independent. Independence was sometimes achieved peacefully (e.g. Jordan) and sometimes with a great degree of violence. France waged a protracted war in Algeria between 1954 to 1962.
North American Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA encouraged trade among the USA, Mexico, and Canada by reducing tariffs. The overall objective was to increase the economic power of North America geographically.
Who was Colonel Gamal Nasser?
Nasser was an Egyptian leader who dominated Egypt upon its independence in the early 1950s. Dedicated to Arab Nationalism, Nasser took control of the Suez Canal and constructed the Aswan High Dam. Nasser also led Egypt in a series of conflicts with Israel.