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Cash Crop Economy

Cash crop farming is farming for a large profit. Cash crops are crops that generate a large profit. 

In Latin America under colonial rule, the economies became dependent on trade with Spain and Portugal. The colonies sent raw materials such as sugar, cotton, and coffee to Europe and had to import manufactured goods. 

Depending on one or a few cash crops makes a nation's economy very unstable since there is a lack of diversification. Issues with one crop could yield devastating results. 


What were the causes of the Mexican Revolution?

Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico as a dictator during the 1800s to early 1900s.  Although he brought economic improvements to the country through industrialization, he rigged elections and imprisoned those who spoke out against him.  

Eventually, the masses were left uneducated, landless and poor revolted against Diaz.


Between 1815 and 1848, the major European powers often acted together to resolve European diplomatic and political issues. What was this system called?

Since the Great Powers acted in concert (together), this system was known as the Concert of Europe. Any of the Great Powers could propose a congress at which major European diplomatic and political concerns were discussed.

The Concert of Europe marked the first time the major powers acted collectively to ensure international peace and prosperity.


What were the goals of the Congress of Vienna 1815?

A meeting held to restore Europe back to the way it was before the French Revolution. The Congress of Vienna had several goals and actions to accomplish this.

Goal 1: Prevent France from militarizing again.

Action 1: Strengthen the countries surrounding France. 

Goal 2: Return Europe to the way it ways before Napoleon.

Action 2: Bring back absolute monarchies.

Goal 3: Maintain peace.

Action 3: Create a "Concert of Europe" or organization to protect the peace in Europe.



Conservatism was a set of beliefs held by those who wanted to preserve traditional ways. 

As conservatism clashed with the ideals of the French Revolution, revolutions occurred throughout Europe and Latin America. 


What were the effects of the Mexican Revolution?

The Constitution of 1917  was created granting land reform and rights to workers and women.  

Social Reform - libraries and schools were established. 

Economic Nationalism -  the people were inspired to end their reliance on foreign countries for economic stability. 

Cultural Nationalism - writers and authors began rejecting European culture and embracing their own.


Who was Emiliano Zapata?

A leader of the Mexican Revolution who led a large peasant revolt in the south.  Zapata called for land reform and is hailed as one of the heroes of the Mexican Revolution.


Describe the Encomienda System.

The Encomienda System was used in the New World starting in the 16th century set up by the Spanish. It was a system set up to benefit the Spanish and control the indigenous population.

The Spanish were able to capitalize on this system by forcing natives to work, allowing the conquistadors to acquire great wealth at their expense. 


Who was Francisco "Pancho" Villa?

A rebel leader of the Mexican Revolution.  Villa was extremely popular amongst the peasant population in the North and is considered one of the heroes of the Mexican Revolution.


How did the French respond to the Haitian Revolution?

Distracted by the French Revolution and large-scale European wars, the French initially did little to put down the Haitian Revolution.

In 1802, Napoleon dispatched troops to retake Haiti. The French troops captured Haitian leader L'Ouverture and sent him to France. Eventually, 40,000 French troops died of yellow fever. The French returned home and Haiti became an independent nation.


Gran Colombia

Gran Colombia was a union of the newly freed states of southern Central America and northern South America under the leadership of Simón Bolívar.

The new nation collapsed in 1831 after Bolívar resigned from leadership, eventually forming the nations of Venezuela, Ecuador, and New Granada (Colombia and Panama).


A large-scale slave revolt broke out in what Caribbean country in 1791?

In 1791, while France was in the midst of the French Revolution, a large slave revolt against the French rule broke out in Haiti. By 1793, French forces had been largely defeated by Haitian forces led by Toussaint L'Ouverture.


How did caudillos create instability in Latin American in the Post-Revolutionary era?

Newly independent countries had little experience with self-government.  As a result, local military strongmen called caudillos assembled their own militias and challenged the government's power.


How did economic issues create instability in Latin America in the Post-Revolutionary era?

Latin American colonies were dependent on trade with Spain and Portugal.  The colonies relied on cash crops in order to profit.  

Each area had one or two crops that they would send over to Europe.  This makes the colonies very unstable since their economy was based on only 1 or 2 crops.


How did geography create instability in Latin America in the Post-Revolutionary era?

Geographic Barriers - the Andres Mountains prevented communication between newly independent states.  

This prevented the creation of one united country of newly independent states after independence was achieved from Spain.


How did social injustice create instability in Latin American in the Post-Revolutionary era?

Despite the establishment of democratic forms of government, the colonial social structure still remained intact.  Creoles replaced Peninsulares as the ruling class and little changed for the lower class.


How did the Church create instability in Latin America in the Post-Revolutionary era?

The Roman Catholic Church owned a great deal of land and had tremendous power in Latin America.  The Church pushed to preserve the old order in Latin America for its own interest and further resisted revolutionary ideas that would weaken its position.


What Bolívar ally emerged to lead revolutions against Spain in South America?

In 1816, José de San Martín, an ally of Simón Bolívar, led revolutions against Spain in South America, freeing Argentina, Peru, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay. 


Who helped lead major Latin American Independence movements. Identify the countries liberated by each individual.

Toussaint L'Ouverture - Liberated Haiti by fighting against the French.

Simon Bolivar - Nicknamed "The Liberator," he liberated the northern countries in South America by defeating the Spanish.

Jose de San Martin - he liberated the southern countries in South America by defeating the Spanish.


Describe liberalism after the Congress of Vienna.

People opposed the power of monarchs and sought democratic reforms.


Which Latin American country was the first to successfully achieve independence from Spain?

In the 1810s and 1820s, Mexico fought a successful war of independence from Spain.

Mexico's war for independence was the first of a number of conflicts that saw much of Latin America freed from Spanish control. 



Nationalism refers to a belief that a person's supreme loyalty belongs to the nation, a people united by a common language, culture, and history. Nationalists seek to establish states free from foreign rule/influence.


Why was it difficult to establish functioning republican governments in the Latin American states following their independence?

Unlike the United States, the Latin American states had little tradition of constitutional rule, meaning that concepts such as political rights and civil liberties had little meaning.

Further, throughout the 19th century, political strongmen, known as caudillos, seized control of many of the Latin American states, inhibiting the growth of representative government and provoking frequent civil wars.



A country ruled by a small, powerful elite group of individuals.

In Latin America, one problem was that the colonial class structure remained intact after the establishments of constitutional republics. Creoles replaced the Peninsulares as the ruling class and much of the land/wealth remained in their hands.

Mestizos, Mullatoes, Indians, and Africans gained few rights and still faced racial prejudice. Most had to work as peasants on large plantations.


What was the response in Latin America to Napoleon's invasion of Spain and Portugal?

With Spain under French control, the Spanish colonies in the Americas rose in revolt, a reaction to longstanding resentment at Spanish colonial policies that marginalized Creole populations.


Who was Prince Clemens von Metternich?

An Austrian Prince who led the Congress of Vienna in 1815 after the defeat of Napoleon.

Metternich wanted to restore Europe to the way it was before the French Revolution.


Explain the practice of Russification.

The large Russian nation is made up of many different ethnic minorities.  In a time threatened by Enlightenment ideas and revolution, Russian czars implemented a policy of Russification as an attempt to make all groups think, act, and believe as Russians.  

This was designed to control the masses and prevent revolution.  One national language and religion was enforced.  The Jewish minority was discriminated against as a result of intense feelings of nationalism.


Who was Simón Bolívar?

Simón Bolívar led many of the Central and South American nations in their wars of independence beginning in 1815 after being influenced by Enlightenment Ideas during his childhood education.

A member of the Creole class in Venezuela, Bolívar led revolutions against Spanish authority in Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia, beginning in 1815.

After promising to protect the rights of creoles and emancipation to slaves in his 1815 Jamaica letter, Bolívar began to see success and by 1821 had freed Venezuela and Colombia.


Who was Toussaint L'Ouverture?

In 1791, while France was in the midst of the French Revolution, a large slave revolt against French rule broke out in Haiti.

By 1793, French forces had been largely defeated by Haitian forces under the leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture. L'Ouverture was heavily influenced by the Enlightenment and used guerilla tactics to combat French forces.