After conquering Chinese Manchuria in 1931, which nation invaded mainland China in 1937?
In 1937, Japan attacked mainland China, leading to a three-way conflict among the Japanese, Chinese Communists, and Chinese Nationalists.
What did Japanese Nationalists mean by the phrase "Asia for the Asians"?
The phrase "Asia for the Asians" meant the forced removal of all Western colonies from Asia, but in reality, was a Japanese call for the replacement of the Western powers with Japanese dominance.
In the late 1930s, Japan announced plans for the "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere," a Japanese empire that would stretch from Southeast Asia through China and Japan itself.
Who was Chiang Kai-shek (Jiǎng Jièshí)?
A military officer who succeeded Sun Yat-sen as leader of the Guomindang or Nationalist party in China in the mid-1920; became the most powerful leader in China in the early 1930s, but his Nationalist forces were defeated and driven from China by the Communists after World War II.
Who followed Mao as China's leader in 1976?
After Mao's death in 1976, Mao's widow and her allies seized control of the country but were defeated by Deng Xiaoping and his allies.
Deng was more moderate than Mao, placed less emphasis on Communism, and allowed for some limited economic reforms. Nevertheless, Deng was stridently opposed to increased political freedom and China remained under tight Communist control.
Implemented the "Four Modernizations" which improves technology and the economy. However, civil liberties did not improve under Deng.
Tiananmen Square riots mark the height of public unrest in China as students demand political freedom.
What did Chairman Mao call his plan to rapidly improve China's industrial capabilities?
Chairman Mao's plan was the Great Leap Forward, which he announced in 1958. The Great Leap Forward was a disaster, leading to a famine that killed some 20 million Chinese and doing little to improve the country's industrial capacity.
Who was Mao Zedong?
Mao Zedong emerged as the leader of the Communists in the 1930s. Along with 100,000 of his followers, Mao fled the Guomindang forces in 1934 in a retreat known as the Long March.
After traveling more than 6,000 miles, Mao set up a base in northern China with about 20,000 survivors of the march. In the years that followed, the Communists, the Guomindang, and Japanese invaders battled for control of China. After World War II, civil war continued. In 1949, Mao's communists were victorious.
Mao won the support of the peasant population, which was a key to his success.
Mao launched a program known as the Great Leap Forward, which called for an increase in agricultural and industrial output. He created communes, in which groups of people lived and worked together. The Great Leap Forward was extremely unsuccessful.
Mao also launched the Cultural Revolution in order to renew communist loyalties. He had the Red Guard attack professors and other officials who were considered a threat to the state.
What were the two most powerful political parties in China in the early 1920s?
In China in the early 1920s, the Communists under Mao Tse-Tung and the Nationalists under Sun Yat-Sen (and after his death Chiang Kai-Shek) were the most powerful Chinese parties.
Both parties combined to drive out warlords and foreign powers from China and by 1927 had succeeded in establishing control over all of China south of the Yangtze River.
What caused a breach between the Nationalists and Communists in China in the late 1920s?
In 1927, Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-Shek decided to seize control of all of China. He slaughtered thousands of Communist troops in Shanghai and marched on Beijing, which he captured in 1928.
Mao's Communist troops were driven into northern China, a trek known as the "Long March." From northern China, Mao kept up a civil war against the Nationalists.
In 1966, Chairman Mao commenced the _____ _____, which attempted to remake the Chinese society along pure Communist lines.
The Cultural Revolution saw the jailing and execution of anyone deemed not to adhere to revolutionary Communist ideals. The only acceptable source of political behavior was Chairman Mao's Little Red Book.
Describe the Long March.
Under the leadership of Mao Zedong along with 100,000 of his followers, Mao fled the Guomindang forces in 1934 in a retreat known as the Long March.
After traveling more than 6,000 miles, Mao set up a base in northern China with about 20,000 survivors of the march.
How did many observers view the large student protest in Tiananmen Square in Beijing in 1989?
Coupled with events in Europe, it seemed as if worldwide Communism was on the decline. In China at least, rumors of Communism's decline were greatly exaggerated and Communist forces crushed the protest.
The iconic image of the Tiananmen Square uprising is of a man standing alone, facing a long line of tanks rolling towards him.
Why the Chinese Communist Revolution was successful?
Mao gained support from the peasants by promising them land and equality. The ideals of communism appealed to the largely impoverished peasant population, who saw communism as an answer to their financial struggles.
The large peasant population's support was a key to Mao's success. The Nationalist party was widely unpopular as a result of corruption within their ranks and the belief that they embraced foreign intervention in China.