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Flashcards in BIO220 Lecture 14 Deck (44)
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31

How did Wright prove that artificial selection did play a part for reducing the genetic diversity of maize & teosinte?

- computer simulation model: "no artificial selection": only bottleneck
- real data had less diversity than the simulation, so artificial selection must be present: bottleneck + further selection at certain loci

32

Is there still room left for more artificial selection? (our crops already have very reduced diversity)

Yes, for traits with complex genetic basis

33

what is the longest artificial study, and what do the results mean?

study: 100 generations of selection on corn kernels for protein & oil content

results: "reversal lines" when it begins to plateau show that there is still room for more selection.

34

what are "reversal lines" in the 100 generation selection study?

When the direction of selection is reversed

35

when did the Irish Potato Famine happen?

1845-1852

36

Potatoes ......... from seed

do not grow easily

37

Potatoes sprout easily from ____

underground tuber

38

potatoes reproduce using...

clonal propagation

39

Why did the Potato Famine happen?

- only 1-3 genotypes
- clonal propagation
- no genetic diversity, so couldn't evolve resistance
- P. infetans (oomycete) infected potatoes

40

Oomycete

- fungus-like eukaryote
- distinct from fungi
- disperse spores by wind

41

define: blight

plant disease, usually caused by fungi

42

instead of monoculture crops, we should grow...

polyculture

43

ignorming evolution will affect...

- agriculture
- medicine (antibiotic resistance)
- many important social issues

44

we can still use evolutionary genetics to...

- discover regions of genome under past artificial selection
- improve future crop yields
- design sensible plant schemes to reduce risk of monoculture devastation