Flashcards in Biochem Deck (67)
Describe long range, hormone signaling via the blood
Endocrine signaling, it is long lasting (on the minutes scale)
Describe paracrine signaling
The signals are called paracrine factors
They diffuse to neighboring cell of a different cell type
They are short lived
Important in neurotransmission
Describe autocrine signaling
Common in growth factors for cancer
Cells self stimulate
Describe direct or juxtacrine signaling
Signal binds to cell that is is in contact with
Immune cells use this
Lipohillic signals are ______ lived and they have what 2 receptors
Long, cytoplasmic and nuclear
What are some common lipophilic and hydrophilic medications
Graves' disease causes ____________ and presents with decreased _____ and increased _______
Hyperthyroidism, TSH, T3 and T4
What are the symptoms of Graves? Who does it affect? What are some treatments?
Weight loss, tachycardia, insomnia, thyroid goiter, "buggy eyes"
Women, presents by 40
Resection of the thyroid, radioactive iodine, and pharmacological intervention
The TMD of G-protein-coupled receptors have 7 _______ that are arranged in a _________ pattern. The ECD relies on _________ bonds
Alpha helices, circular, disulfide
________ activate G proteins while ___________ inactivate them
______________ proteins produce secondary messengers
Gs, Gi, Gt, and Gq are activated by or activate what?
Activates AC->cAMP activates PKA
Activated by light; activates cGMP PDE (cGMP->GMP)
Activates PLC; IP3 opens Ca channel on SR or ER
Caffeine affects what?
Inhibits cAMP PDE -> increased cAMP since breakdown is slowed
Albuterol is a ____________ which activates ________________ receptors. What is one side effect of its use for asthma?
Beta agonist, beta-adrenergic, increased HR
What is the MoA of cholera toxin?
Decreased GTPase activity
Gsa remains active and therefore AC keeps producing cAMP, this keeps intestinal Cl- channels open, Cl- leaves and water follows
What is the MoA of pertussis?
Gia prevents dissociation of alpha subunit from G protein complex -> less inhibition of AC ->too much cAMP->lots of fluid and excess mucous in airways
How are GLUT4 and G proteins similar?
They can both be sequestered in vesicles when not needed. GPCR can even be degraded
What is another mechanism to control GPCR response without sequestering them?
Phosphorylation of GPCR which causes arrestin to bind
Phopshotyrosine is recognized and bound by the adapter and docking protein _______________.
SH2 domain of Grb2
Binding of substrate to RTK causes a conformational change followed by ________________
There are RAS dependent and RAS independent pathways associated with RTK. What do they do?
RAS dependent cause changes in gene transcription
RAS independent cause changes in protein and enzyme activity
JAK STAT receptors offer a more __________ route to altering __________
STAT goes to the _____________ after activated
What kind of molecules bind to JAK STAT receptors?
RAS mutations are linked to ___________
_________ blotting uses DNA probes and targets DNA
_____________ blotting involves a ssDNA probe and targets mRNA
Western blotting is used for early detection of _____
Western blotting targets ____________