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Flashcards in Biochem Deck (67)
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1

Describe long range, hormone signaling via the blood

Endocrine signaling, it is long lasting (on the minutes scale)

2

Describe paracrine signaling

The signals are called paracrine factors
They diffuse to neighboring cell of a different cell type
They are short lived
Important in neurotransmission

3

Describe autocrine signaling

Common in growth factors for cancer
Cells self stimulate

4

Describe direct or juxtacrine signaling

Signal binds to cell that is is in contact with
Immune cells use this

5

Lipohillic signals are ______ lived and they have what 2 receptors

Long, cytoplasmic and nuclear

6

What are some common lipophilic and hydrophilic medications

Lipo-contraceptives
Hydro-epinephrine

7

Graves' disease causes ____________ and presents with decreased _____ and increased _______

Hyperthyroidism, TSH, T3 and T4

8

What are the symptoms of Graves? Who does it affect? What are some treatments?

Weight loss, tachycardia, insomnia, thyroid goiter, "buggy eyes"
Women, presents by 40
Resection of the thyroid, radioactive iodine, and pharmacological intervention

9

The TMD of G-protein-coupled receptors have 7 _______ that are arranged in a _________ pattern. The ECD relies on _________ bonds

Alpha helices, circular, disulfide

10

________ activate G proteins while ___________ inactivate them

GEF, GAP

11

______________ proteins produce secondary messengers

Effector

12

Gs, Gi, Gt, and Gq are activated by or activate what?

Activates AC->cAMP activates PKA
Inhibits AC
Activated by light; activates cGMP PDE (cGMP->GMP)
Activates PLC; IP3 opens Ca channel on SR or ER

13

Caffeine affects what?

Inhibits cAMP PDE -> increased cAMP since breakdown is slowed

14

Albuterol is a ____________ which activates ________________ receptors. What is one side effect of its use for asthma?

Beta agonist, beta-adrenergic, increased HR

15

What is the MoA of cholera toxin?

Decreased GTPase activity
Gsa remains active and therefore AC keeps producing cAMP, this keeps intestinal Cl- channels open, Cl- leaves and water follows

16

What is the MoA of pertussis?

Gia prevents dissociation of alpha subunit from G protein complex -> less inhibition of AC ->too much cAMP->lots of fluid and excess mucous in airways

17

How are GLUT4 and G proteins similar?

They can both be sequestered in vesicles when not needed. GPCR can even be degraded

18

What is another mechanism to control GPCR response without sequestering them?

Phosphorylation of GPCR which causes arrestin to bind

19

Phopshotyrosine is recognized and bound by the adapter and docking protein _______________.

SH2 domain of Grb2

20

Binding of substrate to RTK causes a conformational change followed by ________________

Autophosphorylation

21

There are RAS dependent and RAS independent pathways associated with RTK. What do they do?

RAS dependent cause changes in gene transcription
RAS independent cause changes in protein and enzyme activity

22

JAK STAT receptors offer a more __________ route to altering __________

Direct, transcription

23

STAT goes to the _____________ after activated

Nucleus

24

What kind of molecules bind to JAK STAT receptors?

Cytokines

25

RAS mutations are linked to ___________

Cancer

26

_________ blotting uses DNA probes and targets DNA

Southern

27

_____________ blotting involves a ssDNA probe and targets mRNA

Northern

28

Western blotting is used for early detection of _____

HIV

29

Western blotting targets ____________

Protein

30

What is the target of Eastern blotting?

Post-translational modifications of proteins (lipids, carbs, phos., etc.)