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Flashcards in Genetics Deck (146)
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1

Silent mutations are:

Different codon but the same, intended AA

2

Missense mutation

Intended AA changed; results may vary

3

Nonsense mutation

Intended AA changed to a stop codon

4

Frameshift mutation

1 or more nucleotide added/removed

5

What 3 things happen to convert pre-mRNA to mature mRNA?

Splicing, poly A tail, and 5' cap

6

How does mRNA processing differ in prokaryotes?

They don't have RNA processing

7

AZT is a chain ____________. How does it work?

Terminator
It does not have a 3' hydroxyl so when it gets incorporated it will not allow another base to add onto it

8

Ara-C is what type of inhibitor

It's a competitive inhibitor for DNA polymerase

9

Xeroderma Pigmentosum individuals are sensitive to ________

Sunlight

10

Xeroderma pigmentosum individuals are prone to developing what 2 things?

Melanomas and squamous cell carcinomas

11

Xeroderma pigmentosum is caused by a defect in _________________ which causes the accumulation of _____________ in their DNA

Nucleotide excision repair
Thymine dimers

12

What are the main 3 symptoms of cockayne syndrome

Developmental and neurological delay
Sensitivity to sun
Progeria

13

Cockayne syndrome has a defect in what repair pathway

Transcription coupled repair

14

Why is reverse transcriptase special?

It was previously thought that DNA --> RNA and there was no back track

15

GC base pairs have __ h bonds while AT only have __

3, 2

16

Histones are ________ that form _____ h bonds with DNA to form a ___________

Octamers, 142, nucleosome

17

Histones _________ highly conserved among species

Are

18

Approximately _____ % of histones primary structure are made up of positively charged AA ( ________ & __________)

20, Lys, Arg

19

The two classes of DNA binding proteins are histones and ____________

Transcription factors

20

Protein + DNA = ____________

Chromatin

21

_______chromatin is the active form of DNA and is transcriptionally _________.

Eu, active

22

Approximately __% of the genome is euchromatin

92

23

Transcriptionally inactive DNA is called ______________

Heterochromatin

24

What is the position effect?

The activity of a gene depends on it's position in the chromosome. Actively expressed genes will be silenced if relocated near heterochromatin

25

In 1953, Watson and Crick describe _________________________

Double helical structure of DNA

26

In 1966, the ______ _________ was discovered

Genetic code (codon table)

27

The human genome project made ___ cop(ies)y of the genome and cost around ________

1 copy of the 23 chromosomes
1B

28

miRNA is important because it can ___________

Interfere with the translation of proteins by binding to complimentary strands

29

miRNA is made by enzymes called ________

Dicers

30

________ ____ _________ gives out exons the ability to recombine into different mature proteins

Alternative RNA splicing