Flashcards in Genetics Deck (146)
Silent mutations are:
Different codon but the same, intended AA
Intended AA changed; results may vary
Intended AA changed to a stop codon
1 or more nucleotide added/removed
What 3 things happen to convert pre-mRNA to mature mRNA?
Splicing, poly A tail, and 5' cap
How does mRNA processing differ in prokaryotes?
They don't have RNA processing
AZT is a chain ____________. How does it work?
It does not have a 3' hydroxyl so when it gets incorporated it will not allow another base to add onto it
Ara-C is what type of inhibitor
It's a competitive inhibitor for DNA polymerase
Xeroderma Pigmentosum individuals are sensitive to ________
Xeroderma pigmentosum individuals are prone to developing what 2 things?
Melanomas and squamous cell carcinomas
Xeroderma pigmentosum is caused by a defect in _________________ which causes the accumulation of _____________ in their DNA
Nucleotide excision repair
What are the main 3 symptoms of cockayne syndrome
Developmental and neurological delay
Sensitivity to sun
Cockayne syndrome has a defect in what repair pathway
Transcription coupled repair
Why is reverse transcriptase special?
It was previously thought that DNA --> RNA and there was no back track
GC base pairs have __ h bonds while AT only have __
Histones are ________ that form _____ h bonds with DNA to form a ___________
Octamers, 142, nucleosome
Histones _________ highly conserved among species
Approximately _____ % of histones primary structure are made up of positively charged AA ( ________ & __________)
20, Lys, Arg
The two classes of DNA binding proteins are histones and ____________
Protein + DNA = ____________
_______chromatin is the active form of DNA and is transcriptionally _________.
Approximately __% of the genome is euchromatin
Transcriptionally inactive DNA is called ______________
What is the position effect?
The activity of a gene depends on it's position in the chromosome. Actively expressed genes will be silenced if relocated near heterochromatin
In 1953, Watson and Crick describe _________________________
Double helical structure of DNA
In 1966, the ______ _________ was discovered
Genetic code (codon table)
The human genome project made ___ cop(ies)y of the genome and cost around ________
1 copy of the 23 chromosomes
miRNA is important because it can ___________
Interfere with the translation of proteins by binding to complimentary strands
miRNA is made by enzymes called ________