Biochem module 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biochem module 2 Deck (125):
2

Base on IUB system, Hexokinase is what kind of enzyme?

Transferase

3

Major storage carbohydrate in animal

Glycogen

4

What equation is used for enzyme exhibiting cooperativitiy
A . Michaelis Menten
B. Hill
C. Michaelis Menten double derived reciprocal
D. All of the above

B. if ordinary, a and c

5

Primer protein for glycogen

Glycogenin

6

How to overcome competitive inhibition

Add more substate

7

Glycogen is a glycoproteins

False

8

In non competitive inhibition,
A, vmax increase, km increase
B. no change vmax, km decrease
C. No change vmax, no change km
D. Vmax decrease, no change km

D

9

6 membered ring structure sugar is called

Pyranose
If 5- furanose

10

True or false. After a chemical rxn, enzymes are consumed.

False. Enzyme catAlyzes rxn but is not consumed or PERMANENTLY altered

11

Storage form of glucose for plants

Starch. If human, glycogen

12

True or false. Cytochrome are only found in the mitochondria

False.

13

Where does glycogenesis occur

Liver, muscle

14

If rifampicin, an enzyme inducer is given concommitantly with morphine, these will happen to morphine except
A. Inc effect
B. inc metabolism
C. Inc excretion

A. Dec

15

Precursor for glycogen

Glucose

16

functions similar to those of prosthetic groups but bind in a transient, dissociable manner either to the enzyme or to a substrate

Cofactors

17

What is the rate limiting step in glycogenesis

Chain elongation. By glycogen synthase

18

Vitamin b needed for
A. NAD
B. FMN
C. Coenzyme A
D. Ketoacids
E. one carbon metabolism

A. Nicotinamide
B. riboflavin
C. Panthotenic acid
D. Thiamine
E. folic acid and cobamide

19

Activated form of glucose

UDP glucose

20

True or false. Almost all enzyme are protein

True. Mostly protein Some ribozymes ( RNA enzymes)

21

Can glucose 1 phosphate be cleaved

No. Change it to G6P first

22

The ff can increase reaction rate except
A. Increase temp
B. increase reactant concentration
C. Increase kinetic energy
D. None of the above

D

23

Rate limiting step in glycogenolysis

Glycogen phosphorylase

24

How many hydrogen ion is translocated in NADH dehydrogenase

4

25

Product formed by debranching enzyme in glycogenolysis

Free glucose

26

Competitive inhibition has
A. No effect on vmax, increase km
B. increase vmax, no effect on km
C. Decrease vmax, decrease km
D, increase vmax, increase km
E. no effect on vmax, no effect in km

A

27

Pompe's disease lacks what enzyme

Acid maltase

28

phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate is
A. Endergonic
B. exergonic
C. Both
D. Neither

A. Needs energy from ATP.

29

How many ATP is used in glycogenolysis

None

30

Final electron acceptor in ETC

Oxygen

31

If Gibbs free energy is positive, it will favor
A. Substrate formation
B. product formation

Substrate

32

How many hydrogen ion is needed to produce 1 ATP

4

33

True or false. In noncompetitive inhibition, binding of the inhibitor affects binding of substrate

False. Does not affect.

34

True or false. Chylomicron triacylglycerol is directly taken up by liver

False. Lipoprotein lipase must first act on it

35

True or false. In spontaneous rxn, there is increase in entropy

True

36

What is the prosthetic group of peroxidase

Protoheme

37

Partial oxidation of fatty acids in the liver leads to

Ketone body production

38

How many ATP is produced from FADH2 in TCA

3

39

Initial electron donor in ETC

NADH

40

If reaction proceeds spontaneously with loss of free energy
A. Gibbs is negative, exergonic
B. Gibbs is positive, endergonic
C. Gibbs is negative, endergonic
D. Gibbs is positive, exergonic

A

41

serve as recyclable shuttles—or group transfer reagents—that transport many substrates from their point of generation to their point of utilization

Co enzymes

42

In ETC, what links the flavoproteins to cytochrome b

Ubiquinone or coenzyme Q

43

process of forming glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors

Gluconeogenesis

44

distinguished by their tight, stable incorporation into a protein’s structure by covalent or noncovalent forces

Prosthetic group

45

Where do non competitive inhibitor bind

Allosteric site If competitive, active site

46

True or false. Endergonic rxn does not need exergonic rxn to take place.

False. It cannot exist alone, must have energy source

47

In ETC the ff acts as proton pump except
A. Complex I
B. complex II
C. Complex III
D. Complex IV

B.

48

Uncouplers inhibit ETC by what mechanism

Create iodophores where hydrogen ions can go inside mitochondria thus reducing the electrochemical gradient for ATP synthase to occur

49

What inhibitor blocks conduction of hydrogen ion to the ATP synthase

Oligomycin

50

Monosaccharides are joined by
A. Phosphodiester bond
B. glycosidic bond
C. Peptide bond
D. Hydrogen bond

B.
phosphodiester bond for ATP
Peptide bond for amino acids

51

Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate enters the mitochondrion, where it is oxidatively decarboxylated to the two-carbon acetyl group in acetyl-CoA. This rxn is called

Transition rxn

52

How many ATP is produced in glycolysis

4

53

What organism utilize simple exergonic process

Autotrophs

54

Glucose is an example of
A. Aldehyde
B. ketone
C. Carboxylic acid
D. Alcohol

A. Fructose is a ketone

55

As you go along ETC,
A. There is an increase in electronegativity
B. There is a decrease in electronegativity
C. There is no change in electronegativity

A

56

In ETC, an inhibition of 1 complex will
A. Slow down ETC
B. Stop ETC
C. Hasten ETC
D. No effect

B

57

Lower Km will result to
A. Increase affinity
B. increase vmax
C. Decrease affinity
D. Decrease vmax

A

58

How many net ATP is produced in aerobic glycolysis

7

59

Most important carbohydrate

Glucose

60

How many ATP is produced in the NADH of TCA

15

61

Barbiturates is an inh. Of ETC complex ____
A. I
B. II
C. III
D. IV

A. By inhibiting the transfer of Fes to Q

62

Inhibitor of complex V

Atractyloside or oligomycin

63

In complex IV, how many hydrogen ion are translocated

2

64

True or false. Enzymes are stereospecific

True.

65

In glycogen, what bond causes it to branch

1,6 bond

66

Esters of fatty acids with glycerol

Fats
If with alcohol , wax

67

Where does glycolysis take place

Cytosol

68

When a chain is said to be saturated,
A. It has no double bond
B. it has 1 double bond
C. It has 2 double bonds
D. It has 1 triple bond, 1 double bond

A.

69

FADH2 will start at what complex in ETC

II

70

Inhibitor of glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase

Iodoacetate

71

Amphibolic metabolism is
A. Exergonic
B. endergonic
C. Both

C. Anabolic - endergonic ; Catabolic - exergonic

72

ALL carboxylases require _____ as a co-factor

Biotin

73

All the products of digestion are metabolized to a common product called

Acetyl coA

74

End product of anaerobic glycolysis

Lactic acid

75

Energy is used in gluconeogenesis

4 ATP, 2 GTP, 2 NADH

76

Each glucose molecule can produce ____ ATP

32

77

Where does ETC take place

Inner mitochondrial membrane

78

Pathway to synthesize ribose

Pentose phosphate

79

Main fuel RESERVE of the body

Triacylglycerol

80

True or false. All organ can take up free fatty acids

False. Brain and erythrocytes cannot

81

NADH is transferred from the cytosol to the mitochondria by what transported

Glycerophosphate shuttle or malate shuttle

82

Where does protein synthesis take place

Endoplasmic reticulum

83

Acetyl-CoA is also used as the precursor for biosynthesis of the ff except
a. long-chain fatty acids
B. steroids
C. ketone bodies
D. none of the above

D

84

After deamination, amino nitrogen is excreted as

Urea

85

Glycolysis is
A. Catabolism
B. anabolism
C. Amphibolism

A

86

Glycolysis in RBC will yield how many net ATP

None

87

Dec in glycogen phosphorylase would lead to
A. Inc glycogenesis
B. dec glycogenesis

A

88

These organs DO NOT need insulin except
A. RBC
B. brain
C. Liver
D. Muscle
E. intestinal mucosa

D. Muscle and adipose tissues need it

89

How many ATP is invested in glycolysis

2

90

How does pyruvate become lactate

Fermentation by lactate dehydrogenase

91

Major site of gluconeogenesis

Liver 90%, kidney 10

92

ATP is an inhibitor of gluconeogenesis

False. Activator along fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase

93

Rate limiting step in gluconeogenesis

Fructose 1,6 bisphosphate to fructose 6 phosphate

94

Enolase is inhibited by

Fluoride

95

Where does PEP carboxylase get GTP

Beta oxidation of fatty acid

96

True or false Increase breakdown of fat would signal gluconeogenesis

True

97

Muscle does NOT contribute to blood glucose

True. It has no G6P

98

Endoplasmic reticulum

Where is glucose 6 phosphate converted to glucose

99

How many ATP is used in Cori cycle

4

100

major precursor of glucose in ruminants

Proprionate

101

Priopionate is directly fed to gluconeogenesis

False.

102

true or false. Gluconeogenesis depends on amino acids and, to a lesser extent, on lactic acid and glycerol

True

103

Increase glucagon increases gluconeogenesis

True.

104

Glucagon stimulate glycolysis

FAlse. Inhibit

105

The only source of glucose during prolonged fasting

Gluconeogenesis

106

Inc NADH inc gluconeogenesis

False

107

Dietary EVEN numbered carbon fatty acids will yield propionate

False. ODD numbered so yun may carbon 15, 17, 19....

108

Fructose 2,6 bisphosphate would stimulate gluconeogenesis

False. Stimulate glycolysis.inh gluconeogenesis

109

Where can you find glucose 6 phosphates

Liver and kidney

110

catalyzes the conversion of glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate

Glycerol kinase. Found only in kidney n liver

111

Enzyme in the Rate limiting step of glycolysis

Fructose 6 phosphate to fructose 1,6 bisphosphate

112

Where can you find PEP carboxylase

Mitochondria

113

Shape of the graph of an enzyme that exhibits cooperativitiy

SigmoidalIf ordinary enzyme, hyperbolic

114

combined catabolic and anabolic processes

Metabolism

115

The remaining free energy that is not captured as high-energy phosphate is liberated as _____

Heat

116

How many net ATP is produced in anaerobic glycolysis

2

117

Main fuel source of the body

Glucose

118

How many ATP is produced from the NADH of GLYCOLYSIS

5

119

portion of the total energy change in a system that is available for doing work

Gibb's free energy

120

True or false. Metalloenzymes are metal activated enzymes

False. Metalloenzyme - prosthetic groupMetal activated enzyme - cofactors

121

How many hydrogen ions are translocated in complex II

None

122

Cyanide inhibits what complex in ETC

IV

123

postulates that the energy from oxidation of components in the respiratory chain is coupled to the translocation of hydrogen ions (protons, H+) from the inside to the outside of the inner mitochondrial membrane

Mitchell’s chemiosmotic theory

124

Most accepted theory on enzyme bonding to substrate

Induced fit by Koshland

125

extent of disorder or randomness of the system

Entropy

126

Increase in insulin would lead to
A. Inc glycogenesis
B. dec glycogenesis

A