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Flashcards in Biochem module 3 Deck (158):
2

Rate limiting enzyme of lipogenesis

Acetyl coA carboxylase

3

Substrate of fatty acid synthesis

Acetyl coA

4

How many carbon is there in Lauric acid

12 Mnemonic LaMPSA
Lauric 12
Myristic 14
Palmitate 16
Stearic 18
Arachidic 20

5

Main source of NADPH

PPP

6

Where does lipogenesis occur

Cytosol

7

Increase in acyl CoA would lead to
A. Inc lipogenesis
B. dec lipogenesis

B. kc inhibited un acetyl CoA carboxylase, tricarboxylate transporter and PDH

8

Where can acetyl CoA be made

Mitochondria

9

water soluble equivalents of fatty acids

Ketone bodies

10

Where does lipolysis occur

Mitochondria

11

Product of Lipogenesis

Free palmitate

12

How many ATP is produced in PPP

None

13

True or false. Lipogenesis and lipolysis involves simple reversal of reactions

False

14

Fasting
A. Increases lipogenesis
B. decreases lipogenesis

B

15

List all enzymes used in fatty acid synthesis

Acetyl coA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase

16

Acyl coA dehydrogenase needs what co factor

FAD

17

Write the chemical equation for beta oxidation stearic acid

Substrate. Stearic acid + 8 FAD + 8 NAD + 8 H2OProduct. 9 acetyl coA+ 8 NADPH + 8 FADH 2

18

What toxin characterizes Jamaican vomiting sickness

Hypoglycin

19

Cardohydrate in cardiac tissue
A. ribose
B. lyxose
C. Arabinose
D. Neuraminic acid

B

20

Where does oxidation of fatty acids occur

Mitochondria

21

Enzyme that converts FA to its activated form

Acyl coA synthetase

22

Main organ for excreting acetone

Oxidation in the Lungs...
Acetoacetate and beta hydroxybutyrate - extra hepatic tissue

23

Transketolases require what cofactor

Thiamine

24

Main building block of fatty acid

Acetyl coA

25

Total energy yield of beta oxidation Lauric acid

5 NADPH = 12.5
5 FADH2 = 7.5
6 acetyl coA = 60
Minus investment 2
Net ATP = 78

26

Where does PPP occur

Cytosol

27

Malate can be made into pyruvate by what enzyme

Malic enzyme, this can also be a source of NADPH

28

Glucose + glucose
A. Maltose
B. lactose
C. Sucrose
D. Starch

A. Glycosidic bond in alpha 1,4

29

Epinephrine
A. Increases lipolysis
B. decreases lipolysis

A

30

Occurs when there is a high rate of fatty acid oxidation in the liver

Ketogenesis

31

Carbohydrate in nucleic acid
A. ribose
B. lyxose
C. Arabinose
D. Neuraminic acid

A

32

Biotin in lipogenesis functions as
A. Prosthetic group
B. co factor
C. Co enzyme
D. Proenzyme

A

33

Products of ketogenesis

Acetoacetic acid
Hydroxybutyric acid
Acetone

34

True or false, liver can reutilized ketone bodies

False it cannot. Extra hepatic tissues can

35

Increase in free fatty acids results to the ff except
A. Ketosis
B. more acetyl coA undergoes esterification
C. More acetyl coA undergoes TCA

C. Less goes to TCA

36

Fatty acids are
A. Hydrophobic
B. hydrophilic
C. Amphipathic

C.
Hydrophobic yun hydrocarbon chain
Hydrophilic un carboxyl end

37

Plant that produces hypoglycin causes
A. Jamaican vomiting sickness
B. dicarboxylic aciduria
C. Refsum's disease
D. Zellweger's syndrome

A

38

How many ATP is produced from stearic acid

120

39

True or false. REDUCED glutathione can remove hydrogen peroxide

True.

40

Saturated fatty acids have
A. No double bond
B. Have single double bond
C. Have alternating double and single bonds
D. Composed of single, double and triple bonds

A

41

Where does lipogenesis occur

Cytosol

42

True regarding lipolysis
A. Occurs in cytosol
B. anaerobic or aerobic process
C, ATP producing
D. Simple reverse of lipogenesis

C. Occurs in mitochondria, aerobic process, not a simple reverse of lipogenesis

43

Mediator of inflammation
A. Prostaglandin E
B. Prostaglandin I2
C. Thromboxane A2
D. Two of the above

D. PGE2 and TX A2

44

Carboxylases requires what cofactor

Biotin

45

Increase in citrate would result to
A. Increase lipogenesis
B. dec lipogenesis

A

46

Insulin
A. Increases lipogenesis
B. decrease lipogenesis

A.

47

Inhibitor of thromboxane A2
A. Prostaglandin E
B. Prostaglandin I2
C. Thromboxane A2
D. Two of the above

B aka prostacyclin

48

Acyl coA dehydrogenase requires what cofactor

FAD

49

Acyl synthase coA can be found in the ff except
A. Cytosol
B. endoplasmic reticulum
C. Mitochondria
D. Peroxisomes

A

50

Fed state will
A. Increase lipolysis
B. decrease lipolysis

B

51

Characterized by phytanic acid
A. Jamaican vomiting sickness
B. dicarboxylic aciduria
C. Refsum's disease
D. Zellweger's syndrome

C

52

Where are double bonds of arachidonic acids located

Delta 5,8,11,14

53

Induces uterine contraction
A. Prostaglandin E
B. Prostaglandin I2
C. Thromboxane A2
D. Prostaglandin F2
E. Two of the above

E. PGF2 and PGE

54

the rate-limiting enzyme of eicosanoid biosynthesis

Phospholipase a2

55

The following enzymes can be found in the inner mitochondrial membrane except
A. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I
B. carnitine palmitoyltransferase II
C. Acyl carnitine
D. Carnitine

A.
Yun c, d. Both inner and outer

56

RAte limiting enzyme of pentose phosphate pathway

Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase

57

Beta oxidation of fatty acid sequence
A. Dehydrogenation,hydration, oxidation, thiolysis
B. dehydrogenation, dehydration, reduction, thiokinase
C. Oxidation, dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, thiokinase
D. oxidation, hydration, dehydrogenation, thiolysis

D

58

For propionyl coA to be used in citric acid cycle it must first be converted to
A. Malonyl coA
B. acetyl coA
C. Succinyl coA
D. Alpha ketoglutarate

C

59

Characterized by lack of mitochondrial acrylic coA dehydrogenase
A. Jamaican vomiting sickness
B. dicarboxylic aciduria
C. Refsum's disease
D. Zellweger's syndrome

B

60

Free fatty acid enter liver and exit as

VLDL

61

Precursor in cholesterol synthesis

Acetoacetate

62

Misoprostol which increases mucous secretion and deceased gastric acid secretion is an example of
A. Prostaglandin E
B. Prostaglandin I2
C. Thromboxane A2
D. Two of the above

A

63

Precursor of ketone bodies in the liver

Free fatty acids

64

Used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension
A. Prostaglandin E
B. Prostaglandin I2
C. Thromboxane A2
D. Two of the above

B. by increasing cAMP

65

Chemical equation of lipogenesis if myristic acid will be the end product

Substrates Acetyl coA + 6 malonyl coA + 12 NADPH+ 12 H Products myristic acid + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 7 coASH + 12 NADP

66

Precursor for the synthesis of odd numbered fatty acid

Propionyl coA

67

Giving of fenofibrate,a PPAR activator would
A. Increase triglyceride
B. decrease triglyceride

B

68

Insulin
A. Increases Lipolysis
B. decreases lipolysis

B

69

When glucose is OXIDIZED it becomes
A. Glucoronic acid
B. sorbitol
C. Sucrose
D. ATP

A. Sorbitol if reduced xa

70

Glucose is an example of a
A. Ketohexose
B. ketopentose
C. Aldohexose
D. aldopentose

C

71

carbohydrate is used in glycoproteins
A. ribose
B. lyxose
C. Arabinose
D. Neuraminic acid

C. Also xylose and mannose

72

Insulin
A. Activates PDH, activates acetyl coA carboxylase
B. Activates PDH, inactivates acetyl coA carboxylase
C. Inactivates PDH, activates acetyl coA carboxylase
D. Inactivates PDH, inactivates acetyl coA carboxylase

A.

73

Glucose plus fructose
A. Maltose
B. lactose
C. Sucrose
D. Starch

C. Glycosidic bond alpha 1 beta 2

74

The ff happens in a well fed state except
A. PPP
B. fructose metabolism
C. Lipogenesis
D. Lipolysis

D

75

Carbohydrate used in structure of proteoglycans
A. ribose
B. lyxose
C. Arabinose
D. Neuraminic acid

D

76

Where does chain elongation of fatty acid takes place

Endoplasmic reticulum

77

Rate limiting enzyme in PPP
A. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase
B. 6 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase
C. Transketolase
D. PFK1

A

78

Most important intermediate in PPP that is used in the synthesis of nucleotide

Ribose 5 phosphate

79

ATP is an example of
A. Nucleotide
B. nucleoside
C. Glycoproteins
D. Carbohydrate

A. Nucleoside- wlang phosphate group

80

PPP is active in the ff except
A. Liver
B. skeletal muscle
C. Lactating mammaries
D. RBC

B

81

In G6PD deficiency, RBC are described as

Bite cells
Un hemoglobin may Heinz bodies

82

What is the enzyme needed to activate a carbohydrate that gives a precipitate in Mucic acid test but has zero opTical rotation
A. Aldolase b
B. PFK 1
C. galactose 1 uridyltransferase
D. Transketolase

C. Sugar described is galactose

83

What diseases is caused by a deficiency of very long chain acyl CoA synthetase

X-LINKED ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY

84

Main organ site for uronic acid pathway

Liver. In the cytoplasm

85

Enzyme deficient in humans that results in inability to produce own ascorbic acid

L gulonolactone oxidase

86

The following can INHIBIT lipogenesis except
A. Increase in citrate
B. increase in fatty acyl coA
C. Glucagon
D. Decrease in ATP

A. Stimulated if MADAMI un citrate

87

Enzyme needed to converted fructose 1 phosphate to DHAP and glyceraldehyde

Aldolase b

88

What product of PPP will produce a red furfural ring to furfural test
A. Ribose
B. glucose
C. NADPH
D. Xylulose

A. The test is for 5 carbon sugars.

89

Triacylglycerols must be hydrolyzed by a _____ to their constituent fatty acids and glycerol before further catabolism can proceed
A. Sucrose
B. lipase
C. Dehydrogenase
D. Reductase

B

90

Main precursor of eicosanoids

Arachidonic acid

91

To increase cell membrane fluidity, _____ saturated FA, _____ unsaturated FA
A. Increase, increase
B. decrease, increase
C. Decrease, decrease
D. Increase, decrease

B

92

Where can unsaturation of FA occur

Endoplasmic reticulum by delta 9 desaturase sys

93

Mechanism of aspirin

acetylation of the serine residue of cyclooxygenase (irreversible

94

Where are the double bonds of linoleic acid located

Delta 9,12

95

Rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids

Stearyl coA desaturase

96

LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4 are collectively called as ______ because they mediate inflammatory responses

slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A

97

Peroxisomal beta oxidation leads to formation of what products

Acetyl coA and hydrogen peroxide

98

What kind of oxidation forms dicarboxylic acid
A. Alpha
B. beta
C. Omega
D. All of the above

C

99

The common intermediate in the synthesis of triacylglycerol and glycerophospholipids

Phsophotidate

100

Parent compound of all sphingolipid

Ceramide

101

Major source of arachidonic acid

Cell membrane

102

What enzyme catAlyzes the release of arachidonic acid from C2 of phospholipid

Phospholipsde a2

103

Mechanism of action of steroids
A. Phospholipase a2 inhibitor
B. phospholipase a2 activator
C. Transketolase activator
D. Transketolase inhibitor

A

104

Glutathione peroxidase needs what cofactor

Selenium

105

Collective term for the enzyme that converts acyl coA to acetyl coA

Fatty acid oxidase

106

In ketoacidosis
A. Increase lipogenesis
B. decrease lipogenesis
C. Increase lipolysis
D. Decrease lipolysis

C

107

Where are the double bonds of omega 3 located

Delta 9,12,15

108

Malonyl coA will
A. Inhibit lipolysis
B. stimulate lipolysis

A. Because it will inhibit carnitine palmitoyltransferase I

109

Products of aldolase B are further metabolized by
a. glycolysis
B. gluconeogenesis
C. Both
D. None of the above

C

110

Which of the following is FALSE
A, starvation stimulates ketogenesis
B. increase in malonyl coA inhibits ketogenesis
C. Increase in glucagon inhibits ketogenesis
D.stimulation of Carnitine palmitoyltransferase stimulates ketogenesis

C. Glucagon stimulates ketogenesis

111

How many ATP is needed in PPP

None

112

The ff occurs in the cytoplasm except
A. Glycolysis
B. lipogenesis
C. Lipolysis
D. PPP

C. Sa mitochondria xa.

113

True or false. Fatty acid are unattached inside the cell

False. They are attached to fatty acid binding protein

114

Chronic granulomatous defiency is characterized by
A. Deficient NADPH oxidase
B. deficient glutathione peroxidase
C. Deficient in transketolases
D. Deficient fructose metabolism

A

115

Characterized by absence of peroxisomes
A. Jamaican vomiting sickness
B. dicarboxylic aciduria
C. Refsum's disease
D. Zellweger's syndrome

D

116

Rate limiting product of lipogenesis

Malonyl coA

117

Primary site of TAG synthesis

Liver

118

Substrate for ketogenesis

Acetoacetyl CoA.

119

Collectively known as ketone bodies

Acetone, acetoacetate, beta hydoxybutyrate

120

Where does ketogenesis takes place

Mitochondria

121

Glucose plus galactose
A. Maltose
B. lactose
C. Sucrose
D. Starch

B. glycosidic bond beta 1,4

122

Beta oxidation means cleaving between
A. Carbon 1 and 2
B. carbon 2 and 3
C. Carbon 1 and 3
D. Carbon 4 and 5

B

123

Source of carbon dioxide in the lipogenesis

Bicarbonate ion

124

Beta hydroxyacyl coA dehydrogenase needs what cofactor

NAD

125

Short chain fatty are _________ except
A. More water soluble
B. exist in unionized
C. Fatty acid anion
D. Fatty acid cation

D.

126

What transports free fatty acid to their site of consumption
A. Albumin
B. plasma protein
C. Blood
D. Alpha proteins

A.

127

Glucagon
A. Increases lipogenesis
B. decreases lipogenesis

B. by inhibiting acetyl coA carboxylase

128

Key enzyme in PPP?

G6PD

129

number of NADPH produced per molecule of glucose.

2.

130

G6PD Deficiency is characterized by __________ anemia.

Hemolytic

131

True or False. Reduced NADPH in RBC results in increase detoxification of peroxides.

False.

132

early detector for metabolic/genetic diseases?

NBS.

133

G6PD enzyme shows normal stability but, very low activity in all RBCs.

Class II.

134

Type of g6pd wherein there is chronic non spherocytic anemia even without oxidative stress.

Class I.

135

RBCs contain unstable G6PD enzyme, but normalactivity in younger RBCs and reticulocytes.

Class III.

136

Hemolytic Anemia can be precipitated by?

FOOD: fava beand (favism)
DRUGS: antimalarial
STRESS: infection

137

In DKA, high serum glucose levels may lead to _______________.

Delutional hyponatremia.

138

In DKA, high triglyceride levels may lead to _______________.

factitous low glucose levels.

139

elevation of creatinine level is caused by ___________.

HIGH levels of ketone bodies.

140

use to rule out pulmonary infection such as pneumonia.

Chest Radiography

141

to detect early cerebral edema;use low threshold inchildren with DKA and altered mental status.

Head CT Scan

142

to detect early cerebral edema, ONLY if altered consciousnessis present.

Head MRI

143

major storage lipid in adipose tissue.

Triacylglycerol

144

Major components of plsma and other membranes.

Phospholipids and Glycophingolipids

145

component of lung surfactant.

Dipalmitoyl lecithin

146

precursor of hormone second messenger.

Inositol phospholipid

147

platelet activating factor

involved in inflammation and chemotaxis

148

phospholipid in mitochondria

plasmalogen

149

differentiate portions of the molecule turnover at different rates.

CATBOLISM OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS.

150

an important signaling molecule regulating pathways including cell death, cell cycle cell differentiation and senescence.

Ceramide

151

present in plasma membrane; membranous sheath that surrounds and insulates the axons of some neurons.

SPHNGOMYELIN.

152

involves the loss of both phospholipids and spingolipids from white matter.

MS

153

deficient Hexoaminidase ; rapidly progressing mental retardation, blindness, early mortality.

Tay-Sachs Dse.

154

mediate pain and inflammation, reproduction, and blood coagultion.

Prostaglandins

155

is inducible and is expressed in macrophages and monocytes in response to inflammation.

COX-2 (PGS-2)

156

is expressed constitutively in gastric mucosa, kidney, and vascular endothelial cells.

COX-1(PGS-1)

157

ENZYME: GLUCOSE--->SORBITOL

aldose reductase

158

ENZYME: SORBITOL ---> FRUCTOSE

Sorbitol Dehydrogenase

159

ENZYME: GALACTOSE ---> GALACTOSE 1P

galactokinase and hexokinase