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Flashcards in Vitamins Deck (156):
1

Organic compound required in the diet In small amounts for maintenance of normal metabolic integrity

Vitamins

2

Not considered as vitamins

Vit D and Niacin

3

Two types of vitamins

Water and Fat soluble

4

Types of water soluble vitamins

B and Non B Complex

5

Example of Non B complex

Vit C

6

Types of B complex Vitamins

Energy-releasing: Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Biotin, Pantothenic Acid

Hematopoeitic: Folic Acid, Vit B12

Others: Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine

7

Fat-soluble vitamins

ADEK

8

Vitamin for vision and cell differentiation

Vit A

9

Vitamin for Calcium and Phosphate metabolism and cell Differentiation

Vit D

10

A fat soluble vitamin that is an oxidant

Vit E

11

Vitamin essential for blood clot

Vit K

12

A person with definciency in Vit A is prone to

Night blindedness and Xeropthalmia

13

A person with rickets (young) or osteomalacia (adult) has deficiency in what vitamin?

Vit D

14

Vit E deficiency

Neurologic disorders and Hemolytic Anemia

15

HDN is a deficiency in

Vit K

16

Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins is dependent on

Ileum, bile, pancreas

17

Toxicity is more common and affected by malabsorption syndromes

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

18

What are the Malabsorption Syndromes?

Cystic Fibrosis
Celiac Sprue
Mineral Oil Intake

19

Forms of Vitamin A

Retinol
Retinal
Retinoic acid

20

Storage form of Vit A

Retinyl Esters

21

Vitamin A is also known as

Beta carotene

22

Transport form of Vit A

RBP retinol binding protein

23

Vitamin A is mainly stored where? And in what specific cells?

Liver, Ito cells
Transported with chylomicrons

24

Vit A for regeneration of epithelium (skin and cancer)

Retinoic Acid

25

Two types of Retinoic Acid

Tretinoin: all-trans (for psoriasis)
Isotretinoin: 13-cis (for severe acne)

26

Vit A that supports gametogenesis in gonads

Retinol

27

Vit A that is highly teratogenic

Isotretinoin

28

Only vit used in trx of cancers

Tretinoin

29

Vit A present in rods and cone cells for vision

Function as prosthetic group of opsins

Retinal

30

Vit A def: lost of sensitivity to green light will lead to

Nyctalopia (night blindedness)

31

Vit A def that leads to corneal keratinization and ulceration

Xeropthalmia

32

Corneal keratinization that occurs in conjunctiva

Vitot's spots

33

Vitamin a excess (hypervitaminosis A)

Pseudotumor cerebru
Excessive dryness, desquamation, alopecia
Hepatomegaly
Inc fractures
Teratogenic

34

Pseudotumor cerebri (inc ICP) can be seen in patients with

Excess vit A

35

Other term for Vit D

Calciferol

36

Types of Vit D

Ergocalciferol
Cholecalciferol
Calcitrol

37

Vit D2, milk, plant sources

Ergo calciferol

38

Vit D3, skin, animal sources

Cholecalciferol

39

Precursor of Vit D

7 dehydrocholesterol

40

Storage form of Vit D

25-(OH) vit D3

41

Active form of vit D

1,25-(OH)2 vit D3 (calcitriol)

42

Considered as the most toxic vitamin, why?

Vit D
Affects the heart and kidney

43

Vit D comes from

Cholesterol

44

Vit D synthesis

Starts: skin
1st activation: Liver
2nd activation: Kidney

45

Vitamin that responds to hypocalcemia and PTH

Vit D

End goal: inc calcium, inc PO4

Inc intestinal abs of calcium
Inc bone resorption
Inc kidney reabsorption

46

What is the effect of Vit D in the bones at artery level

Bone deposition

47

Effect of Vit D in increased toxic dose

Bone resorption --calcium goes to bld:hypercalcemia

48

Vit D deficiency in children

Rickets (before growth palate closes)

49

Vit D deficiency in adult (after growth palate closes)

Osteomalacia

50

What causes Rickets/Osteomalacia?

Lack of vit D, calcium in diet
Lack of sunlight exposure
Intestinal malabsorption
Chronic Renal FailurTarget Organ resistance

51

Vitamin D excess (hypervitaminosis D)

Hypercalcemia
Anorexia and nausea
Thirst
Stupor

52

Other term for Vitamin E

Alpha tocopherol

53

Functions as an antioxidant in the lipid phase

Vitamin E

54

Protects membrane lipids from peroxidation

Vit E

55

Prevents oxidation of LDL therefore improving blood flow (dec atherogenesis)

Vit E

56

Condition in which dietary deficiency among humans is actually unknown

Vitamin E deficiency

57

Vitamin excess (least toxic vitamin)

Vitamin E

58

Vitamin E deficiency

Rbc fragility leading to HA
Neurologic dysfxn (neuropathy)
Muscle Membrane Damage

59

Types of vit K

Phylloquinone: K1: green veggies
Menaquinome: K2: intestinal bact
Menadione: synthetic

60

Type of vitamin k found in green vegetablea

Vit K1 - Phylloquinone

61

Vitamin K found in Intestinal Bacteria

Vit K2: menaquinone

62

Synthetic type of Vitamin K

Menadione

63

Vitamin K1 is also known as

Phylloquinone

64

Menaquinone is also known as

Vitamin K2

65

Functions for the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in many calcium-binding proteins

Vitamin K

66

Vitamin k dependent calcium binding proteins

Coag factors (2,7,9,10)
Protein C and S

67

Deficiency of this vitamin is rare because it can be produced by bacterianin the GIT

Vitamin k deficiency

68

In HDN, presents as bleeding (including intracranial bleeds)

Vitamin K deficiency

69

Neonates are at risk because of sterile GIT and low content in breastmilk

Vit K deficiency

70

Vit K excess presents as

Jaundice + hemolytic anemia

71

Antidote for Heparin

Protamine Sulfate

72

Heparin is given

Intravenously

73

Warfarin and coumadin is given

Orally

74

Vit K and FFP is the antidote for

Warfarin

75

Inhibits vit k dependent coagulation factors

Warfarin

76

Vit B1

Thiamine

77

Riboflavin

Vit B2

78

Vitamin B3

Niacin

79

Pantothenic Acid

B5

80

Vit B6

Pyridoxine (Pyridoxal phosphate)

81

Cobalamin

Vit B12

82

Vit B1 deficiency

Beri beri

83

Riboflavin def

Chellosis
Glossitis
Seborrhea

84

Vitamin B3 def

Pellagra

85

Cobalamin deficiency

Megaloblastic anemia
Methylmalonic aciduria
Pernicious anemia

86

Scurvy is a deficiency in

Vitamin C

87

Folate deficiency

Megaloblastic anemia

88

Excess water soluble vitamins wash out of the body in urine except

Vitamin B3, B6, B12

89

Active form of Vit B1

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)

90

Used as cofactor in pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and branched chain AA dehydrogenase

Thiamine

91

Transketolase rxns in the HMP shunt

Thiamine

92

Vit B1 def

Beri beri
Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome

93

Types of beri beri

Dry = no heart failure, symmetrical muscle wasting

Wet = with heart failure, high output cardiac failure, edema

94

Manifestations of wernicke encephalopathy

ACO
Ataxia
Confusion
Opthalmoplegia

95

Manifestations of Korsakoff Psychosis

CHA
Confabulation
Hallucination
Amnesia

96

FAD and FMN is the active form of

Riboflavin

97

FAD

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

98

FMN

Flavin mononucleotide

99

Used as cofactors in redox rxns and electron carrier

Riboflavin, Niacin

100

Has intense yellow color: used as food preservative

Riboflavin

101

Primary source of riboflavin

Milk

102

Vit B2 deficiency

No def state, but with s/sx:
Stomatitis
Chellosis
Seborrheic dermatitis
Corneal vascularization

103

Active form of niacin

NAD and NADP

104

Source of ADP- Ribose: for proteins and nucleoproteins in DNA repair

Niacin

105

May be derived from Tryptophan using vitamin B6

Niacin

106

Niacin may be derived from tryptophan using what?

Vit B6

107

To what AA can you derive Niacin bg using Vit B6

Tryptophan

108

Niacin def presents as

Pellagra

109

Pellagra is?

4Ds: diarrhea
Dermatitis
Dementia
Death

110

Hartnup disease

Dec tryptophan absorption

111

Inc tryptophan metabolism will result to

Carcinoid syndrome

112

What is the effect of Isoniazid to Vit B6

Decrease

113

Can be given to TB Patients together with Vit B supplements

Isoniazid

114

Excess in niacin manifests as

Liver damage

115

A constituent of Coenzyme A

Pantothenic Acid ( Vit B5)

116

Used as cofactors for acyl transfers

Vit B5

117

Component if fatty acid synthase

Vit B5

118

Deficiency of this vitamin usually happens in animals

Vit B5

With s/sx:
Dermatitis
Enteritis
Alipecia
Adrenal insufficiency

119

What is the active form of pyridoxine?

Pyridoxal phosphate

120

Used as coenzyme in AA transamination, glycogen phosphorylase, cystathionine synthase, ALA synthase

Pyridoxine

121

Removes hornone-receptor complex from DNA: stops steroid hormone action

Pyrodoxine

122

Pyridoxine is also known as

Vitamin B6

123

Deficiency will lead to isoniazid toxicity and peripheral neuropathy

Pyridoxine

124

Intake of >299 mg/day will lead to gait problems and CNS Toxicity (excess)

Pyridoxine

125

Vitamin that has cobalt in center of corrin ring

Cobalamin (B12)

126

Types of vit B12

Methylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin

127

Cobalamin binds initially to ________ in the stomach

Salivary cobalophilin

128

Vitamin that needs intrinsic factor for absorption and is absorbed in terminal ileum

Cobalamin

129

Cobalamin is absorbed in what part of the stomach

Terminal ileum

130

2 active forma of cobalamine

5 deoxyadenosylcobalamin and
Methylcobalamin

131

Active form of cobalamin used for methionine synthesis

5deoxyadenosylcobalamin

132

Active form of cobalamin used for isomerization reactions

Methylcobalamin

133

Deficiency in this vitamin will lead to Pernicious Anemia/ Megaloblastic Anemia due to auto immunity

Cobalamin

134

Deficiency of this vitamin will lead to autoimmune destruction of parietal cells leading to decreased IF secretion and decreased vit B12 absorption

Vitamin B12

135

Diagnostic test for Vit B12 deficiency

Schilling test, vit B12, anti-IF

136

Malabsorption or absence of terminal ileum will result to

Vitamin b12 deficiency

137

Structure: pterin ring + PABA + glutamate residues

Folic Acid

138

Humans cannot synthesize folate because it cannot synthesize what substances?

PABA and add glutamate

139

This vitamin should be provided by the diet

Folic Acid

140

Active form of Folic Acid

Tetrahydrofolate (THF)

PABA to DHF to THF

141

Used as coenzyme for 1 carbon transfer (methylation reactions)

Folic Acid

142

Anti cancer drugs that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase of humans

Methotrexate

143

An antimetabolite antibiotic that inhibits both processes in THF synthesis of bacteria

Co trimoxazole

144

Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase

Trimethoprim

145

Sulfamethoxazole inhibits what?

Dihydropteroate synthase

146

Most common vitamin deficiency in developed countries

Folic Acid def

147

Deficiency in this vitamin will lead to megaloblastic anemia with no neurologic symptoms
-- hypersegmentation of neutrophils
-- macrocytic anemia

Folic Acid

148

When is the best time to five Folic Acid to pregnant mothers

Before conception upto first trimester

149

What is the dosage of folic acid given to pregnant women

400 mcg daily

150

Why is Folic Acid is given to pregnant women

To prevent neural tube defects

151

Functional folate deficiency is seen in cases with

Inc homocystiene leading to inc risk of MI

152

Used as cofactor for carboxylation reactions

Biotin

153

Biotin deficiency can be induced by

Avidin in egg whites

--prevents biotin absorption

154

Used as cofactor in hydroxylation of proline and lysine (collagen synth) and dopamine beta hydroxylase
(Dopa to NE)

Vitamin C

155

Reduces ferric to ferrous in stomach to increase iron absorption

Vitamin C

156

Deficiency will lead to scurvy

Vitamin C