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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (21):
1

Serum vs Plasma

both are fluid part of blood after cells have been removed
plasma contains all clotting factors including fibrinogen
serum is fluid part after clot formation

2

collecting serum

collect blood in tubes without anticoagulant
serum tube have red or brown tops
serum separator tubes with layer of gel which separates serum from cells

3

separation of serum

allow blood to clot and remove supernatant
centrifuge
serum separator tubes (gel)
separate immediately if possible
store at 4oC

4

total protein

measured on serum or plasma
made up of albumin and globulins
measure by refractometer or colorimetric method
falsely increased by icterus, severe haemolysis + lipemia

5

increased protein?

dehydration
inflammation
neoplasia

6

decreased protein?

loss
decreased synthesis
dilution

7

albumin

dye binding method of measuring albumin
increased albumin - dehydration
decreased albumin - increased loss (renal, haemorrhage, GI), decreased synthesis (liver), third spacing (effusions)

8

globulins

calculated
different types that can be separated by electophoresis
selective increase - infl, neoplasia

9

evaluating the liver

enzymes
metabolites
function tests

10

pancreas

amylase and lipase
from pancreas and other sources - not specific
increases seen in dogs with pancreatitis
renal insufficiency also causes increases

11

urinary system evaluation

look at both serum/plasma chemistry + urine
urea + creatinine both indicators of glomerular filtration
urea made in liver via urea cycle and excreted by kidney
cratinine derived from creatine in muscle

12

azotemia

increase nitrogenous waste in circulation

13

azotemia - causes

pre-renal - dehydration
renal - renal disease
post-renal - obstruction
check urine specific gravity (USG) - measure of kidneys ability to concentrate urine
compare with serum/plasma urea + creatinine

14

urine specific gravity (USG)

1030 dog
1035 cat
1025 horse or ruminant
if USG less then there's decreased concentrating ability + renal failure is present

15

urea

in ruminants is not reliable indicator of renal disease - use creatinine only
urea levels influenced by protein intake + may be increased by high protein meal or GI bleeding

16

sodium

main ion in extracellular fluid
regulated by kidney
increased sodium may be due to increased intake, water loss or decreased water intake
decreased sodium may be increased loss or increased water intake

17

potassium

main ion in intracellular space
acid-base change will effect levels
regulated by intake + renal
increase - renal failure, hypoadrenocorticism + leakage from cells
decrease - loss (vomit/diarrhoea) + intake

18

chloride

usually changes with sodium
interference with bromide + iodine salts
changes with acid-base status or vomiting/abomasal displacement

19

calcium

free calcium - active
bound calcium - bound to albumin
affected by albumin levels
if increased - check free Ca levels seperately
regulated by PTH and calcitonin

20

phosphorus

regulated by PTH and calcitonin
increase often associated with renal disease
increase often seen in young growing animals with increased calcium + ALP

21

Urinalysis

gross appearance
chemical analysis - specific gravity + urine strip
sediment - cellular elements, crystals, casts others