Cytology in practice Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cytology in practice Deck (25):
1

advantages of cytology

quick, easy cheap
non-invasive
can be good diagnositic tool

2

limitations of cytology

relies on sample quality
exp of examiner

3

histopath

more expensive
slower - 48h
tumour grading
immunhistochemistry more avaiable

4

what/where to sample - aspiration or imprints

superficial masses
lymph node
organs, deep masses

5

what/where to sample - fluid

body cavities
joints
resp tract
cerebrospinal fluid

6

fine needle biopsy

solid + fluid filled masses
visual/ultrasound guidance
similar to FNA but no -ve pressure
insert into mass several times - more representative
necrotic centre - sample wall + centre

7

fine needle aspiration (FNA)

only if needle biopsy unrewarding
needle in centre of mass, apply -ve pressure
repeat 2-3x for representative sample
release plunger before removing needle

8

touch impression (imprints)

good for excised tissue/superficial lesions
made before excised tissue in put in 10% buffered formalin + submitted for histopathology

9

imprints

use fresh cut surface of tissue
blot till dry
imprint directly onto slide
4-5 imprints per slide

10

collection of fluid

clot prevention - EDTA
bacteriology - sterile pot
slide prep - fresh

11

inflammation vs neoplasia

sample mostly infl cells (WBC) or tissue cells (neoplastic)
if both, exp needed - one could be primary cause and the other secondary

12

septic inflammation

bacteria/organisms
degenerate neutrophils
bacteria intracellular within neutrophils to be significant
if extracellular - contaminants

13

non-septic inflammation

no bacteria/organisms
neutrophils non-degeneratie
no identifiable bacteria

14

degenerative change in neutrophils

nuclear change
nucleus swells, loses lobulation + paler
secondary to release of bacterial toxins

15

incr numbers of macrophages - causes

granulomatous infl - mycobacterium sp
if neutrophils also - pyogranulomatous infl - fungal
either can be seen with foreign bodies

16

round cells

round/oval cell
round nuclei
well defined borders
good cell yield
advantage over histopathology

17

round cell tumours

lymphoma
plasmacytoma
histiocytoma
hast cell tumour
transmissable venereal tumour (TVT)
(melanoma)

18

epithelial cells

in sheets/rafts/cluster
cell-to-cell junctions
nuclei round + in centre
abudant cytoplasm
good cell yield
sebaceous, mammary, liver

19

mesenchymal cells

individual or clumps
spindle - fusiform - stellate
indistinct cell border
long nucleus
matrix production

20

cellular criteria of malignancy

anisocytosis - variation in cell size
macrocytosis - large cells
cell crowding

21

nuclear criteria of malignancy

anisokaryosis - varying nuclear size
multinucleation - off numbers of nuclei
macrokaryosis - giant nuclei
high
incr + abnormal mitotic figures
nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
coarse chromatin
nuclear moulding - deformation of nuclei by other nuclei

22

mesenchymal tumour - what to beware of

granulation tissue has malignant features
well differentiated sarcoma can look benign
take biopsy

23

mammary tumours

need to biopsy to differentiate between abscess, MCT or lipoma

24

malignant tumours with uniform cells

thyroid carcinoma

25

not seeing bacteria doesnt rule out ___

sepsis