Equine dentistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Equine dentistry Deck (40):
1

Normal anatomy

incisors
canines
wolf teeth (vestigial 1st premolar)
cheek teeth

2

equine adaptions

interdental space
limited rostrocaudal movement of temporomandibular space (TMJ)
increased lateral movement of TMJ
TMJ allows occlusal contact of all cheek teeth simultaneously
well developed masticatory musculature
adapted for constant grinding - hypsodont, irregular enamel edges

3

mastication

opening, closing, power strokes
tongue moves food around mouth

4

Triadan system of dental nomenclature*

1/2/3/401-11 from right to left, top to bottom

5

ages of eruption of equine teeth*

see table in notes
molars later than incisors

6

development of cheek tooth

maxillary wider than mandibular arcade
occlusal surface at 10-15 degrees

7

normal cheek teeth anatomy*

cementum - attaches to periodontal ligament
dentine - bulk of tooth, tubular structure
enamel - hardest tissue, laminated sheets
pulp - blood + nerve supply to tooth
infundibulum - infolding of enamel from occlusal surface

8

dental exam

distant observation
external exam - condition score
head exam - symmetry, LNs, discharge, pain
oral exam - incisors malocclusion, interdental space, cheek teeth

9

oral exam

restraint
head support
illumination

10

additional diagnostic aids

mirror
probes/picks
oral endoscopy
radiography
scintigraphy

11

effect of enamel overgrowth

prevent jaws from moving freely
cause pain, quidding + weight loss
biting problems
headshaking
shear mouth

12

Shear mouth

occur over long time
mouth may remodel to compensate

13

Shear mouth - treatment

reduce buccal and lingual points
reduce angle
regular treatments every 3-6 months
address any underlying pathology

14

rasping blades

carbide chip - cheap
solid tungsten carbide blades - better

15

routine rasping - 4 types

straight head, long length
obtuse angled head, long length
angled offset head, medium length
5 float

16

power tools

remove hooks quickly
care palatine artery

17

Retained deciduous premolars ('caps')

shed at 2.5, 3 + 4 years
if retained - anorexia, poor performance, malocclusion

18

rostral + caudal overgrowths

106, 206, 311, 411
usually with rostral displacement of maxillary arcade

19

focal overgrowth - causes

diastema
displaced teeth
lost teeth
fractured teeth

20

removal of overgrowths

care - pulp exposure, heat production
overgrowth have less occlusal contact, less secondary dentine, therefore increased risk of pulp exposure

21

pulp exposure

identify by probing 2ndary dentine overlying pulp horns
can be a cause + consequence of apical tooth infections
can be from over rasping

22

infundibular caries

can lead to septic pulpitis
80% of horses > 15 yrs old are affected
usually benign
can cause sagittal fracture of the tooth

23

peridontal disease

primary is rare - caused by diastemata
v.painful
increased incidence with age
begins with gingivitis with a pocket formation - debris get stuck and bacteria build up

24

diastemata

often normal in aged horses
food trapped between teeth + compacted

25

diastemata - treatment

monitor, widen, extraction
more short foods

26

removal of impacted food

long handled dental
high pressure water or air picks
transient improvement only

27

displaced cheek teeth - developmental

overcrowded arcades during eruption
often bilateral

28

displaced cheek teeth - acquired

more common
usually lower 10s and 11s

29

cheek teeth fractures

can be secondary to severe infundibulur caries
can lead to septic pulpitis
can cause acquired overgrowths

30

mandibular apical tooth infections

most common in young horses
asymmetrical jaw swelling
oral involvement
diagnosis easy with radiography

31

Maxillary apical tooth infections - aetiology

infundibular caries
pulp exposure - premature or after fracture
periodontal fistulation

32

oral endoscopy

close up of back of mouth
rigid or fibre optic scope
expensive

33

dental radiography

low sensitivity, high specificity

34

gamma scintigraphy

shows mineralised and non-mineralised tissue
sensitive but only mild specificity
non invasive
images whole head simultaneously

35

computed tomography (CT)

rotating x-ray tube
advantages - windowing

36

radiographic signs - apical tooth root infections

periapical sclerosis
periapical halo

37

apical tooth infections - treatment

antibiotics
currettage (surgical instrument)
tooth removal

38

oral extraction procedure

sedation
local blocks
separation
placement
grip
patience

39

wolf teeth

no deciduous precursors
erupt at 1 year of age
many lost
can be displaced

40

wolf teeth - extraction

can involve extensive elevation of tooth
can cause injury if inexperienced
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