Macro minerals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Macro minerals Deck (17):
1

lack of magnesium - clinical signs

Range from per acute to sub clinical
Hyperaesthesia
Ears twitching
Sensitive to sound/ hand clap
Staggers and collapses
Champing of jaws
Sudden Death

2

lack of magnesium - clinical signs - sub acute

Slow onset over 3-4 days
Spasmodic urination and defecation
Muscle tremor
Staggering gait

3

lack of magnesium - clinical signs - chronic

Few signs
Poor appetite
Depressed milk yield
Normally all types have increased heart rate

4

lack of magnesium - cause

Low Mg levels in the diet (fresh grass)
Poor feed intakes (rain)
Poor absorption of the Mg

5

lack of magnesium - treatment

urgent
Bottle Ca borogluconate with Mg hypophosphate, i/v, slowly
Magnesium sulphate 25% s/c only

6

lack of magnesium - prevention

Magnesium alone is not very palatable
MgO in concentrates, mix with molasses
Mg bolus oral
Mg tablets / flakes added to drinking water
Avoid K fertilizer when hypomag is a known problem

7

lack of calcium causes which illnesses

Bovine Parturient Paresis
Hypocalcaemia
Acute flaccid paralysis
Milk fever

8

calcium homeostasis

Absorption from GIT, kidney and bone
PTH
Vitamin D3 (converted in kidney)
Calcitonin
Mg co-factor required at several stages

9

low ca - clinical signs - subclinical

Able to stand
Hypersensitivity
Excitable
Tremors
Ear twitching
Ataxia
Bloat/gas in gut

10

low ca - clinical signs - moderate

Recumbent –sternal recumbency
Depressed
Dry Muzzle
Cold extremities
Bloat/gas in gut
No defecation
Delayed/absent pupil responses

11

low ca - clinical signs - severe

Reduced consciousness
Lateral recumbency
Unresponsive to stimuli
Muscle flaccidity
Reduced cardiac output
Bloat
Death

12

low ca - treatment

urgent
20%/40% CaBorogluconate 400ml
Low Volume treatments Maxacal 100ml
some mixed with Mg, P, Glucose
i/v: slow
Monitor heart rate

13

low ca - cause

Demand is not met by supply
Absorption from Kidney
GIT absorption - Absorption %-age (Ca in dry cow ration), Feed intake (Fat Cows)
Bone reserves (Old Cows)

14

low ca - prevention

Low Ca in dry cow ration
High Ca in milking cow ration
Mg-supply
DCAB
Drench at calving
bolus just before calving

15

phosphorus

Local condition
Happy downer
No response to Ca/Mg tx
Foston i/v

16

DCAB

DCAB: dietary cation anion balance /diet
Cations: Na and K
Anions: Cl and S
Analyse them in mmol/kg DM

17

anionic salts

Anionic Salts are not very palatable and reduce DMI
Can cause negative energy balance, fatty liver, metabolic problems - use with care