Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (293)
Delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, decreased adult hair (axillary, facial, pubic), ansomia - vit deficiency?
Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of what heme factors/proteins?
Clotting factors: 10, 9, 7, 2
Proteins C and S
*Warfarin = vit K antagonist
inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase (ehtanol-->acetaldehyde); antidote for methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning
Disulfiram - "antibuse"
inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acetaldehyde-->acetate); get acetaldehyde accumulation-->hang-over symptoms!
How may ethanol lead to hypoglycemia and acidosis?
ethanol metabolism increases the NADH/NAD ratio in the liver, causing: pyruvate-->lactate and Oxaloacetate-->malate
-this inhibits gluconeogenesis and stimulates fatty acid synthesis --> hypoglycemia and hepatic fatty change
-also: overproduction of lactate--> acidosis
Kwashiorkor vs Marasmus
Kwashiorkor- protein deficiency; edema (big belly), skin lesions, fatty liver (b/c decreased apolipoprotein synthesis)
Marasmus- malnutrition; muscle wasting, skinny, may have some edema
kinases- add a P, uses ATP
phosphorylases - add a P, does not use ATP
phosphotase - removes a P
dehydrogenase - oxidizes
carboxylase - transfers CO2 groups with help of biotin
rate limiting enzyme of glycolysis?
rate-limiter of gluconeogenesis?
rate limiter of TCA cycle?
rate-limiter of glycogen synthesis
rate-limiter of glycogenolysis
rate-limiter of HMP shunt
rate-limiter of de novo pyrimidine synthesis
rate-limiter of de novo purine synthesis
rate limiter of urea cycle
rate limiter of FA synthesis
ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase)
rate limiter of FA oxidation
Carnitine acyltransferase I
rate limiter of ketogenesis
rate limiter of cholesterol synthesis
rate-limiter of heme synthesis
rate-limiter of bile acid synthesis
Metabolic processes: Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, acetyl-CoA production, HMP shunt, oxidative phosphorylation, Urea cycle, FA oxidation, FA synthesis, protein synthesis, steroid synthesis, heme synthesis:
-which take place in cytoplasm?
-which in mictochondria?
-which in both cytoplasm and mitochondria?
Cytoplasm: Glycolysis, FA synthesis, HMP shunt, protein synthesis (RER), steroid synthesis (SER)
Mitochondria: FA oxidation, acetyl-CoA production, TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation
Both: Heme synthesis, Urea cycle, Gluconeogenesis (HUG :))
Which 3 reactions in metabolism require TPP (thiamine cofactor)?
1) Transketolase (HMP shunt: ribulose-5-P --> fructose-6-P)
2) Pyruvate dehydrogenase (glycolysis/acetyl CoA prod: pyruvate--> acetyl CoA)
3) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase: alpha-ketoglutarate-->succinyl CoA
Which 3 metabolic reactions require a biotin cofactor?
1) ACC: acetyl-CoA-->malonyl CoA
2) pyruvate carboxylase: pyruvate-->oxaloacetate
3) propionyl CoA carboxylase: propionyl-CoA-->methylmalonyl CoA
which metabolic reaction requires vitamin B12 (cobalamin)?
methylmalonyl-CoA --> succinyl CoA
How many ATP are produced per glucose molecule (aerobic in heart/liver; aerobic in muscle; anaerobic)?
Aerobic metabolism via malate aspartate shuttle in heart and liver: 32 ATP/glucose
Aerobic via glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle in muscle: 30 ATP/glucose
Anaerobic: 2 ATP/glucose
What do these carriers carry:
-ATP --> phophoryl groups
-NADH/NAD/FADH2 --> electrons
-coenzyme A --> acyl groups
-lipoamide --> acyl groups
-biotin --> CO2
-tertrahydrofolates --> 1 Carbon units
-SAM --> CH3 groups
-TPP --> Aldehydes
-what process is it a product of?
-list 4 processes it is used in:
-NADPH = product of HMP shunt (why G6PD is so important!)
-NADPH is used in:
1) anabolic processes (ie steroid and FA synthesis)
2) respiratory burst (ie in phagolysosomes)
4) glutathione reductase (protects RBCs from oxidative damage by oxygen free radicals)