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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (556)
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510

What are the 2 functions of vitK?

1. Production of blood clotting factors II, V, VII, IX, X
2. Bone mineralisation: VitK-dependent proteins; osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, protein S role in matrix formation

511

What are the effects of vitK deficiency?

Inc. prothrombin time and risk of haemorrhage
Bone deformation

512

What is the oral manifestation of vitK deficiency?

Uncontrollable gingival/mucosal bleeding

513

What is VitE? Generally describe function and how it works

Family of 8 naturally occurring compounds
Powerful antioxidant, present in anti ageing products
Intercepts free radicals, prevents destruction of cell membrane

514

What are the sources of VitE?

Egg, fish, liver, butter
Soybean, palm oil, sunflower, corn, olive, nuts, green leafy veg, whole grain

515

What is the RDA for vitE?

Men: 4mg/d
Women: 3mg/d

516

What is the function of vitE?

Promote vasodilation
Inhibit platelet aggregation
Prevent atherosclerosis by preventing oxidation of LDLs

517

What are the effects of a VitE deficiency?

Premature ageing: hair, nails, skin
Inc. risk of CVD
Degenerative changes in blood capillaries

518

Name the B complex vitamins

B1: thiamin
B2: riboflavin
B3: niacin
B5: pantothenic acid
B6: pyridoxamine
B12: cobalamin
Biotin
Folic acid

519

What are the sources of vitBs?

Yeast, grain, rice, fish, veg, meat

520

What is the effect of toxicity of B6?

>5.0mg/d
Nerve damage, difficulty walking
Numbness in feet and hands

521

What are the 4 functions of vit Bs?

1. Co-enzymes
2. Energy metabolism: B1-6 and biotin
3. RBC synthesis: folate, B12
4. Homocysteine metabolism: folate, B6 and 12

522

What is the effect of B1 deficiency?

Beriberi: after 10 days

Weakness, nerve degeneration, irritability, poor leg/arm coordination, loss of nerve transmission
Oedema, enlarged heart, heart failure
Due to poor glucose metabolism

523

What is the effect of B2 deficiency?

Ariboflavinosis: occurs within 2 months

Glossitis, cheilosis, stomatitis, nervous system disorder

524

What does B3 deficiency cause?

Pellagra
Scaly sores, mucosal changes and mental syndrome

525

What does B6 deficiency result in?

Depression
Nerve irritation
Skin disorders
Vomiting
Impaired immune system

526

What does B12 deficiency cause?

Megaloblastic anaemia
Large and irregular RBCs

527

What oral manifestations do vit B deficiencies result in?

B2: glossitis, stomatitis, cheilosis
B12: aphthous ulcer

528

What are the sources of vitC in humans?

Citric fruits

529

What is the RDA for vit C?

40 mg/d

530

What 3 things does toxicity of vit C result in?

>1000 mg/d

1. Stomach pains
2. Diarrhoea
3. Flatulence

531

What are the 5 functions of vit C?

1. Antioxidant
2. Enhance iron absorption
3. Synthesis of collagen
4. Immune: reduce cold duration by 1 day
5. Wound healing

532

What does vit C deficiency cause?

Scurvy: 20-40 day deficient

Fatigue, pinpoint haemorrhages
Bleeding gums and joints

533

What are the oral manifestations of vit C deficiency?

Loosening of teeth and tooth loss
Gum bleeding, gingivitis

534

What are the 3 most important trance minerals?

1. Iodine: thyroid function
2. Iron: haemoglobin
3. Fluoride: bone and teeth

535

What are the 2 most important major minerals?

1. Phosphorus: DNA
2. Calcium: bones

536

What are the 5 sources of fluoride?

1. Toothpaste
2. Fluoridated water
3. Mouthwash
4. Food processed w/ fluoridated water
5. Fluoride supplements

537

What is the function of fluoride?

Anti-cariogenic:
prevent bacterial adhesion
suppress cariogenic bacteria
change enamel crystalline structure

538

Describe the changes in enamel crystalline structure due to fluoride

HA -> FA

Larger crystals
Higher pKa to dissolve

539

What is the result of fluoride toxicity?

Fluorosis

Chronic
Mottled enamel w/ scattered, irregular white flecks