Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (556)
What are the 2 functions of vitK?
1. Production of blood clotting factors II, V, VII, IX, X
2. Bone mineralisation: VitK-dependent proteins; osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, protein S role in matrix formation
What are the effects of vitK deficiency?
Inc. prothrombin time and risk of haemorrhage
What is the oral manifestation of vitK deficiency?
Uncontrollable gingival/mucosal bleeding
What is VitE? Generally describe function and how it works
Family of 8 naturally occurring compounds
Powerful antioxidant, present in anti ageing products
Intercepts free radicals, prevents destruction of cell membrane
What are the sources of VitE?
Egg, fish, liver, butter
Soybean, palm oil, sunflower, corn, olive, nuts, green leafy veg, whole grain
What is the RDA for vitE?
What is the function of vitE?
Inhibit platelet aggregation
Prevent atherosclerosis by preventing oxidation of LDLs
What are the effects of a VitE deficiency?
Premature ageing: hair, nails, skin
Inc. risk of CVD
Degenerative changes in blood capillaries
Name the B complex vitamins
B5: pantothenic acid
What are the sources of vitBs?
Yeast, grain, rice, fish, veg, meat
What is the effect of toxicity of B6?
Nerve damage, difficulty walking
Numbness in feet and hands
What are the 4 functions of vit Bs?
2. Energy metabolism: B1-6 and biotin
3. RBC synthesis: folate, B12
4. Homocysteine metabolism: folate, B6 and 12
What is the effect of B1 deficiency?
Beriberi: after 10 days
Weakness, nerve degeneration, irritability, poor leg/arm coordination, loss of nerve transmission
Oedema, enlarged heart, heart failure
Due to poor glucose metabolism
What is the effect of B2 deficiency?
Ariboflavinosis: occurs within 2 months
Glossitis, cheilosis, stomatitis, nervous system disorder
What does B3 deficiency cause?
Scaly sores, mucosal changes and mental syndrome
What does B6 deficiency result in?
Impaired immune system
What does B12 deficiency cause?
Large and irregular RBCs
What oral manifestations do vit B deficiencies result in?
B2: glossitis, stomatitis, cheilosis
B12: aphthous ulcer
What are the sources of vitC in humans?
What is the RDA for vit C?
What 3 things does toxicity of vit C result in?
1. Stomach pains
What are the 5 functions of vit C?
2. Enhance iron absorption
3. Synthesis of collagen
4. Immune: reduce cold duration by 1 day
5. Wound healing
What does vit C deficiency cause?
Scurvy: 20-40 day deficient
Fatigue, pinpoint haemorrhages
Bleeding gums and joints
What are the oral manifestations of vit C deficiency?
Loosening of teeth and tooth loss
Gum bleeding, gingivitis
What are the 3 most important trance minerals?
1. Iodine: thyroid function
2. Iron: haemoglobin
3. Fluoride: bone and teeth
What are the 2 most important major minerals?
1. Phosphorus: DNA
2. Calcium: bones
What are the 5 sources of fluoride?
2. Fluoridated water
4. Food processed w/ fluoridated water
5. Fluoride supplements
What is the function of fluoride?
prevent bacterial adhesion
suppress cariogenic bacteria
change enamel crystalline structure
Describe the changes in enamel crystalline structure due to fluoride
HA -> FA
Higher pKa to dissolve