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Flashcards in biological and cognitive approaches Deck (11)
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1

What was the theory of Oswald 1966?

States all animals sleep allows body to carry out essential repair tasks & repairing minor issues & remove waste chemicals & replenishing neurotransmitters or energy in nervous system

2

Describe crick & mitchison 1983 study & theory "we dream to forget"

Main function of dream reorganisation in order to improve memory storage -based on reverse learning as can be undone during R.E.M. Stage , dreams is just a side effect of decluttering process -cortex becomes overloaded with info - during R.E.M. Sleep unwanted memories are deleted in order to improve organisation -2 main captions adaptive memories- useful to retain & parastic memories -harmful memories

3

What was a weakness if crick & mitichion study ? (1983)

Is based on computers models of memory & lack research support in human , does not explain why dreams have a narrative

4

What stage of sleep does the brain and body repair itself ?

R.E.M. Sleep - brain & slow wave sleep - body

5

What is the biological , cognitive & psychodynamic theory ?

Biological - Oswald (1966) restoration theory (sleep). Cognitive- crick and mitchison (1986) - reorganisational theory (dreaming). Psychodynamic -Freud & Jung (1900) wish fulfilment theory (dreaming )

6

Evidence for crick & mitchison theory ?

The spiny anteater is a primitive egg laying mammal who has no R.E.M. Sleep but does have a huge enlarged frontal context , they claim this is to store unnecessary memories which humans disappose in R.E.M. Sleep

7

Strengths of restoration theory ?

This is supported by the fact that newborn babies have a high proportion of R.E.M. Sleep where it makes up 50 to 60% of sleep tint , gradually falling to normal proportion of about 25% as the child grows. Month before & after birth are a time of rapid brain growth & development so that if R.E.M. is a time where process occur it is logical that the baby should show increased R.E.M. SLEEP.

8

Weaknesses of restoration theory ?

Horne (1978) reviewed 50 studies in which humans had Been deprived of sleep. He found that very few of them reported that sleep deprivation had interfered with the participants ability to preform physical exercise. Neither was there any evidence of a physiological stress response to the sleep deprivation. However prolonged sleep deprivation in rats appears to cause them to increase metabolic rate ,loose weight & die within 19 days. (Everson et al 1989) allowing these animals to sleep within that time prevents their death

9

Problems with re organisational theory ?

1) reverse learning can't explain why dreams are meaningful , no narrative & later crick & mitchison changed their theory to apply only to bizarre imagery in dreams 2)capacity for storage may by underestimated perhaps we don't need to rid our brains of so much info

10

What is the case study randy Gardner ?

- he is holder for the scientifically documented longest period sleep deprivation without use of stimulants. - in 1964 Gardner a 17 yrs old student in San Diego California stayed awake (11 days 24 mins). - gardners record attempt was monitored by Stanford sleeo researcher DR WIlliam Dement, his health monitored by lt Cmdr John J Ross & log was kept from two of his classmates

11

What is the findings of randy Gardner ?

- this experiment used to demonstrate extreme sleep deprivation has little effect other than the mood changes associated with tiredness. -for example dement said on the 10 day, Gardner beat dement at pinball though Lt Cmdr. John j Ross , reported serious cognitive & behavioural changes which included moodiness , concentration & stm , hallucinating . - on 11 day he was asked to substrate 11 repeatedly starting with 100 but stopped at 65 , when asked why he stopped he replied he forgot. - Gardner appeared to fully recover from his loss of sleep which follow up sleep recordings taken 1,6 & 10 weeks after the fact showing no sig diffs & No long term psychological or physical effects