Flashcards in BL - Liver Deck (20):
Where is bile made?
In the liver
What is the vein called that enters the liver?
Hepatic portal vein
What makes a portal circulatory route different from a typical circulatory route?
The portal route goes through two sets of capillaries before entering the heart rather than one
What does the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system pass through?
Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
What does the hepatic portal system pass through?
Stomach and intestine, then liver
Give some examples of substances that travel in the portal vein.
Water (and water soluble vitamins), electrolytes, carbohydrates, proteins, intestinal hormones, toxins
What happens to ammonia in the kidney?
It is converted to urea which can be excreted in urine
Which substances are notably NOT found in the portal vein?
Lipids and fat soluble vitamins (A,D, E and K)
Give some examples of things stored by the liver.
Iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, vitamin K, glycogen
True or false - though haematopoiesis is possible in the liver in a foetus, this cannot be revived in adults?
False - it can if bone marrow is failing
What is cytochrome P450?
A family of haem- containing isoenzymes which are located in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of several tissues.
Which type of cell is critical to the "filtering" function of the spleen?
What are hepatocytes?
Cells that makes up 80% of the liver cell population. They can regenerate and contain lots of mitochondria and peroxisomes.
What do glycogen inclusions look like on images?
Very small black speckles/dots
What is a sinusoid?
Irregular tubular space for passage of blood, takes place of capillaries and venules in liver, spleen and bone marrow.
What is a "portal triad"?
A bile duct, a hepatic portal venule and a hepatic arteriole.
What is a liver lobule?
A small subunit of the liver composed of hepatocytes which process blood from an incoming portal venule and send it back out.
What are Kupffer cells?
Monocytes derived specialist macrophages which line the sinusoids.
What do stellate cells contain?
Cytoplasmic vacuoles containing vitamin A