Flashcards in BL - Respiratory System Deck (24):
How can the 2nd rib be easily located?
Find the sternal angle between the manubrium and the sternum. Second rib attaches here.
Which two types of membranes are contained within the respiratory system?
Mucous membrane and serous membranes.
Give some examples of substances which may fill the pleural cavity.
Air, blood, pus or a watery transudate/exudate.
What is a pneumothorax?
When air fills the pleural cavity.
How is fluid usually drained from the pleural cavity?
By inserting a wide-bore needle through 7th intercostal space, under ultrasound guidance.
What runs in the costal groove along the inferior border of each rib?
Intercostal nerves and vessels
A woman has paralysis on one side of her diaphragm. How could cancer have caused this?
Tumour impinging on left or right phrenic nerve.
Give two things that can cause muscle wasting in the lower arm/palm.
Pancoast tumour or cancer (impinging on brachial plexus).
What type of epithelium lines the airways from the nasal cavity to the largest bronchioles?
What type of epithelium lines the olfactory region?
Pseudostratified (very thick)
Which is more anterior, the trachea or the oesophagus?
Bone is found in a transverse section of an oesophagus. What does this indicate about the age of the person it was taken from?
They are elderly.
What is the difference beteeen primary and secondary/tertiary bronchi?
Secondary/tertiary has cartilage arranged in irregular "crescent plates" rather than in rings.
What do club cells secrete that prevents the walls of the alveoli sticking together during expiration?
When (at what age) does the body stop developing new alveoli?
At the age of 8.
What is emphysema?
Destruction of alveolar walls and permanent enlargement of air spaces which can result from smoking or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.
What is a hallmark sign of emphysema?
What is pneumonia?
Inflammation of the lung caused by bacteria.
What is the pleura?
Thin membrane that folds over itself and lines the lungs
What are the functions of pleural fluid?
It reduced friction and provides surface tension so lung doesn't collapse.
What is the pleural/potential space?
Gap between pleurae, usually vacuum keeps these together.
What is a pneumothorax?
Air between the pleurae
What is an open pneumothorax?
Opening in chest wall which allows atmospheric air to enter the pleural space. Caused by trauma eg stabbing, gunshot, impalement, surgery