Flashcards in IPS - First Three Sessions Deck (26):

1

## Describe stage one of demographic transition.

### Total population low, birth rate and death rate fluctuate at a high level.

2

## Describe stage two of demographic transition.

### Birth rate high, death rate decreasing. Total population increasing.

3

## Describe stage 3 of the demographic transition model.

### Birth rate decreasing, death rate is low, total population increasing.

4

## Describe stage four of demographic transition.

### Birth rate and death rate low, total population high but steady.

5

## What does the theory of economic transition describe?

### As per capita income increases, the population transitions from being mostly employed by agriculture to being employed by industry, services and agriculture. Finally, the population is mostly employed by services.

6

## What are two consequences of demographic transition?

### An ageing population, and a higher proportion of people with at least one disability.

7

## Give one consequence of economic transition.

### Unequal distribution of wealth across the globe.

8

## What is an SDG?

### A sustainable development goal

9

## Give three factors that influence population health.

### Demographic shape, economic composition, behavioural and lifestyle factors

10

## What is the name given to the distribution of a statistic across an infinite number of samples?

### The sampling distribution

11

## True or false - the sample averages are equivalent to the means of the samples?

### True

12

## What is the central limit theorem?

### The idea that the distributions of the means of the samples have a similar shape regardless of population distribution/size.

13

## What is a confidence interval?

### Usually the 95% confidence interval, which is the range that is likely to contain the mean of the population values 95% of the time.

14

## What two factors influence the size of the 95% confidence interval?

### The variation in population values (more variation, wider interval), and the size of the sample (smaller sample, wider interval).

15

## True or false - if a sample is precise then it cannot be biased?

### False - a sample can be extremely precise yet still be biased.

16

## What is selection bias (there are three possible ways for it to occur)?

###
- Study participants are drawn from a sampling frame that is not representative of the general population. This leads to errors in generalisability.

- Groups compared are not from same population. Errors in comparability.

- One of the groups being studied is not representative of the sampling frame. Errors in comparability.

17

## Is generalisability known as internal or external validity?

### External. Comparability is internal validity.

18

## What are the two categories of bias?

### Selection bias and information bias.

19

## What are the two types of analytical studies?

### Cohort studies and case-control studies.

20

## What is risk ratio?

### Ratio of "prevalence proportions" of outcome in groups defined by levels of exposure at a particular time. Eg per 1000 person-years.

21

## What is rate ratio?

### Ratio of incidence rates of outcome in groups defined by levels of exposure after a particular time period. Eg person 1000 person-years.

22

## What is odds ratio?

### Ratio of odds of outcome in groups, defined by levels of exposure at a particular time.

23

## How is prevalence calculated?

### Incidence x duration of disease

24

## What is a cohort study?

### This involves recruiting individuals and classifying them according to their exposure status. They are then monitored for extended periods.

25

## What is the difference between a prospective and a retrospective cohort study?

###
Prospective - individuals who have and haven't been exposed are recruited and followed up.

Retrospective - individuals recruited then exposure status calculated from historical documentation.

26