MCBG - Advanced Molecular Techniques Flashcards Preview

CJ: UoL Medicine Semester One (ESA1) > MCBG - Advanced Molecular Techniques > Flashcards

Flashcards in MCBG - Advanced Molecular Techniques Deck (13):
1

Give some ways to analyse DNA at the nucleotide level.

- DNA sequencing
- PCR with restriction analysis

2

Give some ways to analyse DNA at the gene level.

- Southern and Northern blotting
- RT-PCR
- Microarray
- DNA fingerprinting/profiling

3

Give some ways to analyse DNA at the chromosome level.

- Karyotyping
- FISH/chromosome painting

4

What is DNA sequencing?

The process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

5

Why is DNA sequencing an ethical issue?

- could open up areas for discrimination
- hard to decide who owns the sequence (person who sequenced it or patient themselves?)

6

What are allele-specific primers used for?

In PCR, allele specific primers can be used to create a PCR product which includes a certain mutation with a known location.

7

What is Southern Blotting used to show?

Presence of a particular DNA fragment in a sample.

8

What is the purpose of RT-PCR?

It is used to clone expressed genes by reverse transcribing the RNA into DNA through the use of reverse transcriptase.

9

How does DNA microarray work?

Samples of denatured DNA are labelled green (for individual) or red (control) with fluorescent dyes. They hybridise to a chip containing both normal and mutated ssDNA, and it can be used to show whether the individual has the mutation or not.

10

What are minisatellites?

Short sequences (10-60bp) of repetitive DNA that show variation from one person to the next.

11

What technique is used to amplify DNA so it can be profiled?

PCR

12

What is karyotyping?

A test to identify and evaluate size, shape and number of chromosomes in a sample of body cells.

13

What is FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridisation) used for?

To detect the presence/absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes.

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