BLOCK 2 ALL DRUGS Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > BLOCK 2 ALL DRUGS > Flashcards

Flashcards in BLOCK 2 ALL DRUGS Deck (105):
1

Metyrosine

Competitive inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase; Indication: Hypertension; Results in less dopamine production; and therefore less NE/Epi

2

Reserpine

Inhibits VMAT uptake of monoamines; Indication: Hypertension; Less synaptic NE because vesicles cannot be adquately concentrated

3

Bretylium

Inhibits AP generation and Ca dependent vesicle fusion; Indication: Ventricular arrhythmia;

4

Cocaine

Blocks monamne reuptake transporters; Indication: Analgesia during surgery;

5

Amphetamine or Ephedrine

Reverse monoamine reuptake transporters; Indication: Narcolepsy; ADHD;

6

Naloxone; Naltrexone

Non-peptide blockers of opioid receptors; Indication: Opiod overdose or Dependence;

7

SSRIs

Selevtive inhibition of serotonin reuptake transporter; Indication: Depression and anxiety;

8

ACE inhibitors

Inhibit cleavage of Ang I to Ang II; Indication: Hypertension;

9

Phenylephrine

Direct adrenergic agonist; Indication: Hypotension during surgery;

10

MAO inhibitors

Block cytoplasmic monoamine metabolism; Indication: Depression;

11

L-DOPA

Precursor of dopamine; stimulates production of dopamine; Indication: Parkinson's disease;

12

Carbidopa

Blocks L-DOPA conversion to dopamine; aromatic acid decarboxylase inhibitor; Indication: Parkinson's disease; Prevents excessive conversion of dopamine to NE to protect peripheral adrenergic neurons

13

Tyramine

Competes with NE for transport into synaptic vesicle; Indication: Not therapeutic;

14

Epinephrine

α and β agonist; Indication: Anaphylaxis; shock; cardiac arrest; heart block; Toxicity: arrhythmias

15

Norepinephrine

α and β1 agonist; Indication: Acute hypotension due to shock; Toxicity: ischemia due to vasoconstriction

16

Dopamine

β agonist; some α activity at high concentrations; Indication: Cardiogenic shock; Toxicity: low BP; iscemia at high levels

17

Isoproterenol

β agonist; Indication: Transient heart block; Toxicity: tachyarrhythmias; Contraindicated for pts with angina

18

Dobutamine

β1 agonist; Indication: Short term Rx for low cardiac contractility; Increases CO without reflex tachycardia

19

Terbutaline

β2 agonist; Indication: Prevent and reverse bronchospasm in asthma; emphysema and bronchitis; Toxicity: tachycardia; tremor; develop tolerance

20

Albuterol

β2 agonist; Indication: Bronchial smooth muscle relaxation; Toxicity: tachycardia; tremor; develop tolerance

21

Phenylephrine

α1 agonist; Indication: Pressor agent for anesthesia; nasal congestion; dilate pupils; supraventricular tachycardia; Toxicity: hypertension

22

Clonidine

α2 agonist; Indication: Hypertension; Toxicity: dry mouth; hypertensive crisis after acute withdrawal

23

Propranolol

β blocker; Indication: Hypertension; angina due to atherosclerosis; MI; Toxicity: Bronchospasm; DO NOT PRESCRIBE to asthmatic

24

Timolol

β blocker; Indication: Glaucoma; Topical eye drop; Toxicity: Bronchospasm; DO NOT PRESCRIBE to asthmatic

25

Nadolol

β blocker; Indication: Long-term angina; hypertension; Longer half life; Toxicity: Bronchospasm; DO NOT PRESCRIBE to asthmatic

26

Atenolol

β1 blocker; Indication: Hypertension; Angina; MI; doesn’t cross BBB

27

Metoprolol

β1 blocker; Indication: Hypertension; long term angina rx; crosses BBB

28

Pindolol

Partial β agonist; Indication: Hypertension; When sympathetic activity is too high

29

Esmolol

β1 blocker; Indication: Supraventricular tachycardia; Emergent

30

Phenoxybenzamine

α blocker; Indication: Pheochromocytoma; Irreversible; Toxicity: prolonged hypotension; reflex tachycardia

31

Phentolamine

α blocker; Indication: Test for pheochromocytoma; Rx before surgery; Reversible; Toxicity: prolonged hypotension; reflex tachycardia

32

Prazosin

α blocker; Indication: Hypertension;

33

Doxazosin

α1 blocker; Indication: Prostatic hyperplasia; hypertension; Toxicity: orthostatic hypotension

34

Terazosin

α1 blocker; Indication: Prostatic hyperplasia; hypertension; Toxicity: orthostatic hypotension

35

Amphetamine

Indirect sympathomimetic; Indication: ADHD; reverse presynaptic transport protein so more NE can be release; DO NOT PRESCRIBE if MAOI's w/in 2wks

36

Methylphenidate

Indirect sympathomimetic; Indication: ADHD; DA reuptake inhibitor; DO NOT PRESCRIBE if MAOI's w/in 2wks

37

Ephedrine

Indirect sympathomimetic; Indication: Pressor agent for anesthesia; DO NOT PRESCRIBE if MAOI's w/in 2wks

38

Pseudoephedrine

Indirect sympathomimetic; Indication: Nasal decongestion;

39

Nicotene

N & M agonist; Indication: Smoking cessation;

40

Succinycholine

Depolarizing block of N receptors; Indication: Neuromuscular block for ECST; emergency intubation;

41

Acetylcholine

N & M agonist; Indication: None; RAPIDLY degraded

42

Methacholine

M agonist; Indication: Dx asthma; test of asthma severity; Contraindication: β blockers

43

Carbachol

M & N agonist; Indication: Miotic agent in ocular surgery and glaucoma; reduces ocular P;

44

Bethanechol

M agonist; Indication: Urinary retention; bladder atony;

45

Pilocarpene

M agonist; Indication: Dry mouth from head and neck radiation; narrow angle glaucoma;

46

Neostigmine

AchE inhibitor; Indication: Myasthenia gravis; reverse neuromuscular block; Toxicity: muscarinic and nicotinic excess; contraindication: intestinal obstruction

47

Edrophonium

AchE inhibitor; Indication: Diagnosis of myasthenia gravis; reversal of neuromuscular block; Toxicity: bradycardia; cardiac standstill; contraindication: intestinal blockade or urinary obstruction

48

Physostigmine

Reversible AchE inhibiotr; Indication: Delirium from anticholinergic drugs (poisoning antidote); glaucoma;

49

Donepezil

Reversible AchE inhibitor; Indication: Rx for Alzheimer's disease;

50

Pralidoxime

Peripheral AchE reactivator; Indication: Respiratory muscle weakness in organophosphate poisoning; "2PAM"

51

Echothiophate

Irreversible AchE Inhibitor; Indication: Open angle glaucoma; Long half life

52

Atropine

Muscarinic antagonist; Indication: Excess secretions during surgery; increased freq and urg associated with cystitis; hypertonic gut; organophosphate poisioning; bradycardia; Treats conditions with excessive parasympathetic action

53

Scopalamine

Muscarinic antagonist; Indication: Motion sickness; anti-saliogogue in surgery;

54

Glycopyrrolate

Muscarinic antagonist; Indication: Protects against excessive muscarinic activation duriing reversal of blockade; antisaliagogue; Use w/ neostigmine to reverse blockade

55

Succinycholine

Depolarization blockade of muscle nicotinic receptors; Indication: Tracheal intubation; ECST;

56

Pancuronium

Non-depolarizng blockade of muscle nicotinic receptors; Indication: Adjuvant in surgical anesthesia; abdominal wall relaxation & orthopedic procedures; Primarily renal excretion

57

D-tubocurarine

Non-depolarizng blockade of muscle nicotinic receptors; Indication: Prototype; used only for lethal injections; Liver and kidney elimination

58

Rocuronium

Non-depolarizng blockade of muscle nicotinic receptors; Indication: intubation; muscle relaxation during surgery or ventilation; Liver elimination

59

Mivacurium

Non-depolarizng blockade of muscle nicotinic receptors; Indication: intubation; muscle relaxation during surgery or ventilation; Eliminated by plasma cholinesterases; used in renal failure patients

60

Vecuronium

Non-depolarizng blockade of muscle nicotinic receptors; Indication: Adjuvant in surgical anesthesia; abdominal wall relaxation & orthopedic procedures;

61

Baclofen

GABA-B agonist; inhbits NT release from skeletal muscle sensory afferent; Indication: Muscle spasticity in MS or SCI; Given intrathecally to reduce side effects

62

Diazepam

Benzodiazepine receptor agonist; Indication: Muscle spasm due to local injury; or loss of descending inhibitory input (cerebral palsy); Contraindication: glaucoma due to increased P

63

Tizanidine

Centrally acting α2 agonist; Indication: Muscle spasticity in MS or SCI;

64

Dantrolene

Uncouples excitation contraction of skeletal muscle by blocking Ryanodine receptors; Indication: Muscle spasm; malignant hyperthermia;

65

5-HTP

Serotonin precursor; Indication: Depression;

66

Buspirone

5HT1A partial agonist; Indication: Depression and anxiety; Side effects: initial increase in anxiety; drowsiness

67

Sumatriptan

5HT1D agonist; Indication: Migraines; Contraindication: patients with coronary artery disease due to vasoconstriction

68

Risperidone

5HT2A/2C antagonist; Indication: Depression and psychosis; Causes weight gain; akathisia

69

Odansetron

5HT3 antagonist; Indication: Chemotherapy induced emesis;

70

Fluoxetine

SSRI; Indication: Depression; OCD; anxiety; panic disorder; PTSD; social phobia; Side effects: sexual dysfunction; insomnia

71

Sertraline

SSRI; Indication: Depression; OCD; anxiety; panic disorder; PTSD; social phobia; Side effects: sexual dysfunction; insomnia

72

Bromocriptine

D2 agonist; Indication: Parkinson's disease;

73

Selegiline

MAO-B inhibitor; Indication: Parkinson's disease (low dose); depression (high dose); Side effects: hypotension; hypertensive crisis (high doses)

74

Tolcapone

COMT inhbitor; Indication: Parkinson's disease; Contraindication: liver failure

75

Haloperidol

D2 antagonist; Indication: Psychosis;

76

Metaclopramide

D2 antagonist; Indication: Nausea; Side effect: akathisia

77

Trazadone

5HT2A/2C antagonist + SSRI; Indication: Anxiety/Depression; Side effect: suicidality early after beginning treatment

78

Morphine

μ-receptor; Indication: Severe pain; Side effects: constipation; addiction; tolerance

79

Meperidine

κ-receptor; Indication: severe pain; Also binds K+ channels; Muscarinic receptors and dopamine transporters

80

Hydrocodone

μ-receptor; δ-receptor; Indication: moderate pain (anti-coughing); Also used recreationally

81

Codeine

μ-receptor; Indication: Cough; diarrhea; IBS; narcolepsy; Contains morphine as active metabolite

82

Pentazocine

δ and κ-receptor agonist; μ antagonist; Indication: Dental extraction;

83

Naloxone

μ; δ and κ receptor andtagonists; Indication: antidote;

84

Methadone

μ and δ receptor agonist; Indication: dependence on opioid drugs;

85

Cocaine HCl

Ester; Topical anesthetic; Indication: medium duration ;

86

Procaine HCl

Ester anesthetic; Indication: Infiltration nerve block subarachnoid; short duration

87

Tetracaine HCl

Potent ester anesthetic; Indication: Subarachnoid; long duration

88

Benzocaine

Topical local anesthetic; Indication: ;

89

Lidocaine HCl

Amide local anesthetic; Indication: IV regional epidural nerve block;

90

Mepivacaine HCl

Potent Amide local anesthetic; Indication: Infiltration nerve block subarachnoid;

91

Ropivacaine

Potent Amide local anesthetic; Indication: Epidural; long duration

92

Propofol

Potentiates GABA; Indication: General anesthesia; Short duration

93

Etomidate

Potentiates GABA; Indication: General anesthesia; Least CV effects; adrenal suppresion

94

Thiopental

Barbituate; Indication: General anesthesia; High lipid solubility; rapid onset

95

Ketamine

NMDA receptor antagonist; Indication: General anesthesia; Dissociative (look awake; but arent)

96

Aspirin

Non selective COX1 and COX2 inhibitor; Indication: Mild to moderate pain; rheumatoid arthritis; fever reduction; prevent CV events; Irreversibly inhibition by acetylation; Toxicity: Reyes syndrome = fatal liver degeneration; Contraindication: gout

97

Salsalate

Competitive inhibition of COX1 and 2; Indication: Mild to moderate pain; fever; inflammation;

98

Diflunisal

Competitive inhibition of COX1 and 2; Indication: Stronger antiinflammatory than aspirin; Cannot cross BBB; so no fever effect

99

Ibuprofen

Traditional NSAID; reveresible competitive COX inhibitor; Indication: Analgesic (low dose); antiinflammatory (high dose); Less GI bleeding than aspirin

"Rapid onset of action, ideal for fever and acute pain"

100

Naproxen

Traditional NSAID; reveresible competitive COX inhibitor; Indication: Analgesic; antiinflammatory; antipyrretic; 20x more potent than aspirin; rapid onset; safest NSAID

"Long half life allows for twice daily dosing"

101

Indomethacin

Traditional NSAID; reveresible competitive COX inhibitor; Indication: Analgesic; antiinflammatory; antipyrretic; Most effective fever reducer; drug of choice for closure of patent ductus arteriosus

102

Sulindac

Traditional NSAID; reveresible competitive COX inhibitor; Indication: Analgesic; antiinflammatory; antipyrretic;

103

Keterolac

Traditional NSAID; reveresible competitive COX inhibitor; Indication: Analgesic; antiinflammatory; antipyrretic; IV analgesic; alternative to morphine

104

Celecoxib

Selective COX2 inhibitor; Indication: Analgesic; antiinflammatory; antipyrretic; Used in patients with increased risk of GI complications

105

Acetaminophen

Metabolite: AM404 inhibits COX1 and COX2; Indication: Analgesic (No antiinflammatory effect); Hepatotoxicity; Can be used in gout (unlike aspirin)