Blood and Lymphatic System I Flashcards Preview

Micro Term 4 > Blood and Lymphatic System I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood and Lymphatic System I Deck (33):
1

Yersinia pestis are (G-ve/G+ve) bacilli

Yersinia pestis are G-ve bacilli

2

Yersinia pestis have a ____ appearance due to ____ 

what stain clearly shows this?

Yersinia pestis have a "safety pin" appearance due to polar bodies

stain = Giemsa, Methylene blue stain

3

list other medically important Yersinia (2) 

  • Y. enterocolitica
  • Y. pseudotuberculosis
  • both are zoonotic 
  • ingestion of contaminated food or water

4

describe the route of acquisition of Yersinia and how it defines clinical presentation

5

plague cases in USA are restricted to _____

plague cases in USA are restricted to rural Western USA

6

describe the pathogenesis of the bubonic form

7

describe the clinical presentation of the bubonic plague 

8

if infected with bubonic plague, the draining lymph nodes rapidly become tender and enlarged, called ____

explain where in the body is most common 

if infected with bubonic plague, the draining lymph nodes rapidly become tender and enlarged, called "buboes"

 

most common = femoral and inguinal

tender and firm with surrounding edema and elevation

9

if bubonic plague disseminated to lungs: may result in ______

if bubonic plague disseminated to lungs: may result in secondary pneumonic form

10

describe primary pneumonic plague vs. secondary pneumonic

  • primary pneumonic:
    • direct inhalation from humans with primary pneumonic or from animals with respiratory infxn
  • secondary pneumonic:
    • hematogenous spread of Y. pestis from bubo or other foci
    • cough with sputum

11

describe septicemic plague

  • sudden high fever
  • can develop from bubonic or primary of secondary pneumonic forms
  • found mostly in older individuals 
  • rapidly progressive:
    • DIC
    • emboli
      • gangrene of extremities: "black death"
    • multiorgan failure

12

describe diagnosis of bubonic plague

  • needle aspiration of bubo
    • stain and culture on blood agar, chocolate agar or MacConkey's agar
  • serology for titers against F1 antigen
  • PCR

13

describe diagnosis of the pneumonic plague

  • chest x-ray; rapidly progressing pneumonia 
  • elevated WBC with immature neutrophils 

14

list the 4 diseases associated with Bartonella sp. 

  • cat scratch disease/fever
  • Carrion's disease
  • Bacilliary angiomatosis
  • Trench fever

15

Bartonella  sp. are intracellular in ____ and ____ cells

Bartonella  sp. are intracellular in RBCs and endothelial cells

16

list characteristic of Bartonella  sp. 

  • G-ve
  • microaerophilic
  • slow-growing
  • motile
  • physiologically unremarkable; standard biochemical tests are unhelpful

17

describe Bartonella henselae

  • Cat-scratch disease
    • benign, self-limited
    • erythematous pustule develops within 3-10 days at site of bite or scratch
    • regional lymphadenopathy that may last for months
      • can be suppurative and drain
      • accompanying fever, malaise, headache, anorexia
    • primary reservoir is domestic cats, particularly kittens
      • mainly occurs in children

18

describe the Sketchy

19

describe the 2 stages of Bartonella bacilliformis

Carrion's disease

  • 2 stages:
    • 1. oroya fever: fever and anemia followed by:
    • 2. verruga peruana (weeks to months)
      • multiple nodular hemangiomas skin lesions
      • bacteria invade capillary endothelium → bacteria-filled vacuoles and localized cellular proliferation

20

 Bartonella bacilliformis (Carrion's disease) is geographically restricted to: 

 Bartonella bacilliformis (Carrion's disease) is geographically restricted to the  mountains of American Andes e.g. Peru

21

Bartonella bacilliformis (Carrion's disease) is vector-borne and is carried by ____ 

Bartonella bacilliformis (Carrion's disease) is vector-borne and is carried by sandflies (dusk and evening feeders)

22

describe  baciliiary angiomatosis and name the 2 species that can cause this

  • primarily immunocompromised, particulary AIDS
  • red "cranberry-like" papules; enlarge and ulcerate
  • can occur in all organs
  • single or multiple
  • can also be due to Bartonella quintana
  • caused by:
    • B. henselae
    • B. quintana

23

describe Bartonella quintana

 

Trench fever

  • fever, headache with retroorbital pain, restlessness and severe back and shin pain
  • periodic, recurring illness every 5-6 days; up to 8 times
    • corresponds with release of B. quintana in blood
  • primarily associated with culture-negative endocarditis and bacteremia in homeless in USA
  • spread by lice

24

describe the pathogenesis of B. bacilliformis

  • colonization of entire circulatory system and infxn of erythrocytes
  • severe hematocrit reduction (>80%) → acute hemolytic anemia
    • 40-80% mortality in absence of antimicrobials

25

name the important virulence factors (for all forms of Bartonellosis)

  • Deformin: extracellular factor used for entry
  • flagella
  • BadA: adhesin

26

describe the diagnosis of the Bartonella infections

27

describe the biology of Filoviridae

 

  • order: mononegavirales
  • ebolavirus
    • longer than most viruses
  • negative sense, ssRNA

28

describe the infectious travel of ebola

29

describe the pathogenesis of Filoviridae

30

describe the clinical presentation of ebola

  • incubation period of up to 20 days
  • initial, non-specific viral-infection
    • fever, headache, muscle aches
    • abdominal pain, nausea, cough, chest pain
    • vomiting and diarrhea
  • within few days:
    • petechiae
    • ecchymoses
    • bleeding (puncture sites and mucous membranes)
  • around day 5: maculopapular rash: mostly trunk

31

describe the basic of CDC algorithm for patients under investigation for EBOV diseases

32

describe diagnostic testing for EBOV

33

describe lymphangitis and etiologic agents 

  • red, warm and tender streaks to develop at peripheral lesion on extremity and spread to regional lymph nodes
  • systemic symptoms: fever, chills, headache
  • lymph nodes become enlarged and tender
  • etiologic agents:
    • group A beta-hemolytic Streptococci
    • S. aureus
    • Pasteurella multocida (dog and cat bites)