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Flashcards in RTI III Deck (29):
1

name 5 criteria that highly suggest strep pharyngitis

  • age 3-14
  • absence of cough 
  • swollen and tender anterior and cervical lymph nodes
  • temp. >100.4 F (38 C)
  • tonsillar exudate or swelling

2

list 2 pathogens that require specialized growth media that is not standard

  • Bordatella pertussis: Bordet-Gengou agar
  • C. diphtheriae : Tinsdale agar/Cysteine-Tellurite agar 

3

describe the cell wall of Streptococcus

  • polysaccharide capsule
    • hyaluronic acid
    • Quellung reaction (used specifically for S. pneumoniae, M-protein is used to identify S. pyogenes)

4

describe  Streptococcus pyogenes

clinical syndrome: pharyngitis "strep throat", skin infections, soft tissue infections, endocarditis

  • leukocidin production → inducer of pus formation

5

the large number of virulence factor in Streptococcus is probably due to _____

the large number of virulence factor in Streptococcus is probably due to  transduction-mediated gene transfer and are also capable or transformation

6

Streptococci lack ____ which make them anaerobies but possess ____ which make them ______

Streptococci lack catalase which make them anaerobes but possess SOD which make them aerotolerant

7

____ is type specific proteins in the cell wall of S. pyogenes

M protein is type specific proteins in the cell wall of S. pyogenes

8

____ is group-specific carbohydrate in the cell wall of S. pyogenes

A antigen is group-specific carbohydrate in the cell wall of S. pyogenes

9

list the factors of S. pyogenes that help them avoid phagocytosis

  • avoid phagocytosis:
    • capsule, C5a peptidase, M and M-like proteins, lipoteichoic acid, F protein

10

list the factors of S. pyogenes that help them adhere to and invade cell walls

  • adhere to and invade cell wall:
    • M protein, lipoteichoic acid, F protein

11

list the virulence factors and pathogenesis of Group A streptococcus

  • avoid phagocytosis
    • capsule, C5a peptidase, M and M-like proteins, lipoteichoic acid, F protein
  • adhere to and invade cell wall
    • M protein, lipoteichoic acid, F protein
  • toxins
    • streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPE), streptolysin S, streptolysin O, streptokinase, DNAse
      • streptolysins = lysis of blood cells (specifically WBCs)

12

name the top 2 suppurative diseases that Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) causes

13

name the 2 non-suppurative diseases that Streptococcus pyogenes  (GAS) causes

14

explain the Sketchy for s. pyogenes

15

Corynebacterium are (G+ve/G-ve) rods and (aerobic/anaerobic)

Corynebacterium are G+ve rods and aerobic

16

name 2 other medically-important Corynebacterium species

  • C. jeikeium: associated with bacteremia, IV catheter colonization
  • C. minutissimum: RTI's wound infxns

17

describe what is seen in the image

18

Corynebacterium diphtheriae produces ____ of dub-shaped ____ rods arranged in V or L shapes on Gram stain

Corynebacterium diphtheriae produces gray-to-black colonies of dub-shaped G+ve rods arranged in V or L shapes on Gram stain

19

Corynebacterium diphtheriae produce ____ and can be seen when grown on _____ 

Corynebacterium diphtheriae produce granules (volutin) and can be seen when grown on Loeffler coagulated serum 

20

toxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae have ____ carrying genes for the toxin _____

toxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae have B-prophage carrying genes for the toxin lysogeny, B-corynephage

21

describe the clinical importance of Corynebacterium diphtheriae 

22

describe the pathogenesis Corynebacterium diphtheriae 

23

the main virulence factor for Corynebacterium diphtheriae is _____

the main virulence factor for Corynebacterium diphtheriae is diphtheria exotoxin (genes for toxin acquired via lysogenic conversion → bacteriophage)

  • responsible for:
    • inflammation and formation of pseudomembrane
    • damage to organs

24

describe the mechanism of action of diphtheria toxin

25

describe the screening test for pathogenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae

26

describe the Elek test

27

list the most common pathogens involved in sinusitis and acute otitis media (AOM)

28

explain the Sketchy for Corynebacterium diphtheriae

29

name the signs and symptoms of sinusitis and acute otits media