Blood Loss and Transfusions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood Loss and Transfusions Deck (61)
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1

What is a blood transfusion?

Transferring blood or blood based products from one individual to another of the same species

2

What is the purpose of a transfusion?

- Increase Hb content of blood
- Increase circulating volume
- Increase plasma albumin content
- Provide coagulation factors
- Provide functional platelets

3

What is the percentage of blood loss that is fatal?

50% total volume

4

Is losing 50% of hemoglobin fatal?

May not be but depends on the individual

5

What are the types of blood products?

- Fresh whole blood
- Packed red cells
- Fresh frozen plasma
- Cryoprecipitate
- Platelet rich plasma

6

What PCV does it have to be to be considered whole blood versus packed red cells?

Whole blood- 40%
Packed red cells- 70%

7

How do you increase Hb content of blood if TP is

Fresh whole blood

8

How do you increase Hb content of blood if TP is >3.5?

Packed red cells

9

How long do RBCs survive normally?

60-120 days

Less if there is an immune reaction

10

What is the percentage loss needed to require transfusions in an acutely bleeding patient?

>20% total volume
>10-15% if perioperative

11

Transfusions are requred at which PCV values for:

Acute anemia, chronic anemia, anemia with anesthesia

Acute anemia-

12

Are clinical signs or values more important when considering transfusions?

Clinical signs

13

Is a higher or lower Hb content needed in cases of organ dysfunction?

Higher!

14

What are the clinical signs of blood loss (acute or chronic)?

- Pale MMs
- Elevated HR
- Low BP
- Weak pulses
- Blood in surgical sponges or containers

15

Will acute blood loss always result in changes in PCV and TP?

No! Not reliable

16

How much blood does a standard surgical sponge contain?

~5mL

17

How is blood loss calculated from fluid in canisters?

mL= (PVC fluid x Vol fluid)/ Preop PCV

18

How much blood volume should be given in acute blood loss?

The same amount that was lost

19

What is the general rule for increasing PCV?

2mL whole blood/kg raises PCV by 1%

20

What is the calculation for volume of blood to be transfused?

([PCVreq-PCVhave]xblood volume)/PCVdonor

21

What are the empirical dosages for transfusions in dogs and cats?

10-40mL/kg Dogs
5-20 mL/kg Cats

22

What dosage should be started to test?

0.25mL/kg for 30 min to test reaction then it can be increased

23

When should a transfusion be completed by?

Within 4 hours

24

Can blood be mixed with LRS?

No- blood will clot due to Ca content

25

Should a separate IV port be used for blood products?

Yes

26

Can blood products be refrozen after they've been thawed?

NO- use it or lose it

27

Which blood product is inappropriate for increasing albumin content?

FFP

28

Which blood product should be used to increase albumin content?

Concentrated albumin

29

What is the disadvantage to using 5% human albumin?

Allergic reactions are commmon

30

What is the diadvantage to using canine albumin powder?

Very expensive