Locoregional Nerve Blocks- Small Animal Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Locoregional Nerve Blocks- Small Animal Deck (66)
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1

What are the four methods of local anesthesia?

1. Topical
2. SubQ
3. Line blocks
4. Wound soaker catheter

2

What are two types of topical anesthesia administration?

1. EMLA cream- lidocaine + prilocaine)
2. Lidoderm- 5% lidocaine patches

3

Do lidoderm patches provide a complete block?

No- only analgesic effects

4

What drugs are used for opthalmic analgesia?

Tetracaine or proparacaine

5

What drug is used for laryngeal anesthesia?

2% lidocaine- usually for intubation

6

What is SQ local anesthesia used for?

Wounds, masses, or biopsy

7

T/F: Ventral midline blocks have conflicting evidence for actually decreasing pain.

True

8

What is a wound soaker catheter?

A long fenestrated closed tip catheter that is placed during surgery deeply close to visualized nerves

9

What are wound soaker catheters used for?

1. Total ear canal ablation
2. Amputation
3. Oncology surgery
4. Large wound closure

10

What are complications associated with wound soaker catheters?

1. Catheter dislodgement or disconnection
2. Local anesthetic toxicity
3. Delayed wound healing

11

What are some advantages to wound soaker catheters?

1. Technically simple
2. Consistent and prolonged analgesia
3. Decreased need for systemic analgesics

12

What are the indications for a bier block?

Distal extremity procedures

13

What are some advantages of a bier block?

1. Simple and reliable
2. Minimal blood loss and clear field

14

What is the procedure for a bier block?

1. Place distal IVC
2. Exsanguinate limb (elevate or tight wrapping)
3. Place tourniquet proximally
4. Remove bandage
5. Inject lidocaine and allow to sit
6. Remove catheters and tourniquet

15

What are some IVRA complications?

1. Pain
2. Ischemia/nerve injury
3. Limb swelling
4. Hematoma
5. Local anesthetic toxicity

16

What are indications for a retrobulbar block?

- Enucleation
- Eviscceration/prosthesis
- Intraocular surgery

17

What nerves are effected in a retrobulbar block?

CN III, IV, V, VI, ciliary ganglion

18

What are the advantages to a retrobulbar block?

1. Post-op analgesia
2. Globe immobility during sx
3. Decreased anesthetic and NMBD requirements

19

What are potential complications of a retrobulbar block?

- Retrobulbarr hemorrhage
- Damage to optic nerve or extraocular muscles
- Globe penetration
- Intravascular injection
- Intrathecal injection

20

What is the preferred technique for a retrobulbar block?

Interior-temporal palpebral

21

If there is resistance to injection during a retrobulbar block, what does this indicate?

Needle is within the optic nerve sheath and proceeding may be fatal

22

What nerve does a maxillary nerve block affect?

Sensory branch of CN V

23

What areas are anesthetised in a maxillary nerve block?

Maxilla and teeth/soft tissues, lateral nasal mucosa

24

`What are the three techniques for a maxillary nerve block?

1. Subzygomatic
2. Maxillary tuberosity (intraoral)
3. Infraorbital

25

What does an infraorbital block provide anesthesia for?

3rd premolar and all teeth rostral, rostral maxilla and soft tissues

26

Where is an infraorbital nerve block placed?

Into the infraorbital foramen

27

Is an intraoral or extraoral technique perfered in cats?

Extraoral

28

What does an inferior alveolar block provide anesthesia for?

Mandibular teeth, rostral lower lip, intermandibular space

29

Where is the injection given for an inferior alveolar block?

Medial aspect of mandible adjacent to mandibular foramen

30

What other nerve may be affected in an inferior alveolar block?

Lingual nerve- loss of sensory innervation to the rostral 2/3 of tongue