Flashcards in Locoregional Nerve Blocks- Small Animal Deck (66)
What are the four methods of local anesthesia?
3. Line blocks
4. Wound soaker catheter
What are two types of topical anesthesia administration?
1. EMLA cream- lidocaine + prilocaine)
2. Lidoderm- 5% lidocaine patches
Do lidoderm patches provide a complete block?
No- only analgesic effects
What drugs are used for opthalmic analgesia?
Tetracaine or proparacaine
What drug is used for laryngeal anesthesia?
2% lidocaine- usually for intubation
What is SQ local anesthesia used for?
Wounds, masses, or biopsy
T/F: Ventral midline blocks have conflicting evidence for actually decreasing pain.
What is a wound soaker catheter?
A long fenestrated closed tip catheter that is placed during surgery deeply close to visualized nerves
What are wound soaker catheters used for?
1. Total ear canal ablation
3. Oncology surgery
4. Large wound closure
What are complications associated with wound soaker catheters?
1. Catheter dislodgement or disconnection
2. Local anesthetic toxicity
3. Delayed wound healing
What are some advantages to wound soaker catheters?
1. Technically simple
2. Consistent and prolonged analgesia
3. Decreased need for systemic analgesics
What are the indications for a bier block?
Distal extremity procedures
What are some advantages of a bier block?
1. Simple and reliable
2. Minimal blood loss and clear field
What is the procedure for a bier block?
1. Place distal IVC
2. Exsanguinate limb (elevate or tight wrapping)
3. Place tourniquet proximally
4. Remove bandage
5. Inject lidocaine and allow to sit
6. Remove catheters and tourniquet
What are some IVRA complications?
2. Ischemia/nerve injury
3. Limb swelling
5. Local anesthetic toxicity
What are indications for a retrobulbar block?
- Intraocular surgery
What nerves are effected in a retrobulbar block?
CN III, IV, V, VI, ciliary ganglion
What are the advantages to a retrobulbar block?
1. Post-op analgesia
2. Globe immobility during sx
3. Decreased anesthetic and NMBD requirements
What are potential complications of a retrobulbar block?
- Retrobulbarr hemorrhage
- Damage to optic nerve or extraocular muscles
- Globe penetration
- Intravascular injection
- Intrathecal injection
What is the preferred technique for a retrobulbar block?
If there is resistance to injection during a retrobulbar block, what does this indicate?
Needle is within the optic nerve sheath and proceeding may be fatal
What nerve does a maxillary nerve block affect?
Sensory branch of CN V
What areas are anesthetised in a maxillary nerve block?
Maxilla and teeth/soft tissues, lateral nasal mucosa
`What are the three techniques for a maxillary nerve block?
2. Maxillary tuberosity (intraoral)
What does an infraorbital block provide anesthesia for?
3rd premolar and all teeth rostral, rostral maxilla and soft tissues
Where is an infraorbital nerve block placed?
Into the infraorbital foramen
Is an intraoral or extraoral technique perfered in cats?
What does an inferior alveolar block provide anesthesia for?
Mandibular teeth, rostral lower lip, intermandibular space
Where is the injection given for an inferior alveolar block?
Medial aspect of mandible adjacent to mandibular foramen