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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Drugs Deck (58)
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1

What are the primary effects of inhalant anesthetics on the CV system?

Vasodilation and inotropy at higher doses

2

What are the primary effects of propofol/alfaxalone/thiopenal on the CV system?

Negative inotropy and vasodilation especially at higher doses

3

What are the primary effects of opioids on the CV system?

Bradycardia; can be profound

4

What are the synthetic agonist of adrenergic receptors?

Isoproteronol, ephedrine, dobutamine, and phenylephrine

5

What are the endogenous agonist of adrenergic receptors?

Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine

6

What are the post-synaptic effects of alpha-1/2 receptors?

Vasoconstriction
Minimal Inotropy (alpha-1)

7

What are the effects of beta-1 receptors?

Inotropy, chronotropy, lusitropy, dromotropy

8

What is lusitropy and dromotropy?

Lusitropy- relaxation
Dromotropy- conduction velocity of the AV node

9

What are the effects of beta-2 receptors?

Some inotropy, vasodilation

10

What is the endogenous agonist of cholinergic receptors?

Acetylcholine

11

What are the effects of muscarinic receptors?

M1- increased gut motility
M2- increased cardiac parasympathetic tone
M3- salivation/vasodilation

12

What are synthetic cholinergic agonists?

Bethanechol and pilocarpine

13

What is the first drug that is usually used for surgical bradycardia?

Atropine

14

What are some other things you can do to correct bradycardia before giving atropine?

Stop or reduce any bradycardia inducing drugs.

(Inhalants, opioids, etc)

15

What are most bradycardias due to?

Excessive vagal tone

Brachiocephalics, visceral manipulation, ocular pressure, drugs

16

What is sometimes induced when atropine is given and will it resolve?

2nd degree AV block, typically will resolve fairly quickly

17

What can be given if a bradycardia isn't due to vagal tone?

Give a beta-agonist

18

What is isoproterenol good for?

Increasing HR while decreasing BP with an non-vagal bradycardia

19

What are causes of low BP?

Low HR/SV/CO
Low blood volume
Vasodilation with no reflex tachycardia

20

What are some ways to increase SVR?

Alpha agonists

Phenylephrine, norepi, or ephedrine

21

What are some ways to increase SV and CO?

Beta agonists

Dopamine, dobutamine, ephedrine

22

What are effects of alpha agonists?

Alpha-1/2: vasoconstriction, decrease CO/SV at high doses

Alpha-1: mild inotropy

23

What is phenylephrine used for in horses?

As a nasal spray to reduce nasal edema

24

What are some effects of ephedrine?

Bronchodilation, promotion of release of NE from terminals

25

Should ephedrine be used in "sick" animals?

No, more appropriate of elevating BP in healthy animals

26

What is an indication for using dopamine?

Increase BP and HR

27

Does dopamine case vasoconstriction or dilation?

Vasodilation- esp in kidneys, mesentary, and coronary vessels

28

Is dobutamine or dopamine more appropriate for horses, dogs, and cats?

Horses- dobutamine

29

What are the effects of dobutamine?

Intropy>chronotropy

Low doses produce desired effect in horses

30

Are the BP effects of dopamine dose dependent in small animals?

Yes