Flashcards in Blood System Deck (132):
Protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood
Specific protein (immunoglobulin) produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens. An antibody is specific to an antigen and inactivates it.
Substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody
White blood cell containing granules that stain blue; associated with release of histamine and heparin. Parasitic infections & some allergic disorders
Orange-yellow pigment in bile; formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells are destroyed
Colony-stimulating factor (CSF)
Protein that stimulates growth of white blood cells (granulocytes)
Change in structure and function of a cell as it matures; specialization
Method of separating serum proteins by electrical charge
White blood cell containing granules that stain red; associated with allergic reactions & parasitic infestation.
Immature red blood cell
Red blood cell. There are about 5 million cells per cubic millimeter/microliter of blood
Hormone secreted by the kidneys; stimulates red blood cell formation
Protein that forms the basis of a blood clot
Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
Plasma protein; alpha, beta, and gamma (immune) globulins are examples
White blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules: eosinophil, neutrophil, and basophil
Hematopoietic stem cell
Cell in the bone marrow that gives rise to all types of blood cells
Blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells
Destruction or breakdown of blood (red blood cells)
Anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells
Response of the immune system to foreign invasion
Immunoglobulin (gamma globulins)
Protein (globulin) with antibody activity; examples are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgD.
White blood cell
Mononuclear leukocyte that produces antibodies. Associated w/ viral infections.
Monocyte that migrates from the blood to tissue spaces. As a phagocyte it engulfs foreign material and debris. In the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, macrophages destroy worn out red blood cells.
Large platelet precursor cell found in the bone marrow
Leukocyte with one large nucleus. It is a cell that engulfs foreign material and debris. Monocytes become macrophages as they leave the blood and enter body tissues
Pertaining to a cell (leukocyte) with a single round nucleus; lymphocytes and monocytes are mononuclear leukocytes
Immature bone marrow that gives rise to granulocytes
Granulocytic leukocyte formed in bone marrow. It is a phagocytic tissue-fighting cell. Also called a polymorphonuclear leukocyte. Pyogenic infections (bacterial).
Liquid portion of the blood; contains water, proteins, salts, nutrients, lipids, hormones, and vitamins
Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge. Collected cells are retransfused back into the donor. Fresh-frozen plasma or salt solution is used to replace withdrawn plasma.
Small blood fragment that collects at sites of injury to begin the clotting process.
Pertaining to a white blood cell with a multi-lobed nucleus; neutrophil
Plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process
Immature erythrocyte. A network of strands (reticulin) is seen after staining the cells with special dyes.
Antigen on red blood cells of Rh-positive individuals. The factor was first identified in the blood of a rhesus monkey
Plasma minus clotting proteins and cells. Clear, yellowish fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot. It is formed from plasma, but does not contain protein-coagulation factors.
Unspecialized cell that gives rise to mature, specialized forms. A hematopoietic stem cell is the progenitor for all different types of blood cells.
Enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation
red, dawn, rosy
neutral (neither base nor acid)
removal, a carrying away
immature cell, embryonic
abnormal condition of cells (increase in cells)
giving rise to; producing
pertaining to destruction
derived or originating from
attraction for (an increase in cell numbers)
Any abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood
Deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin. life span of erythrocytes ~120 days. most common type is iron-deficiency anemia.
Failure of bone marrow to produce adequate peripheral blood elements (pancytopenia). Usually idiopathic, more common in males. Signs/symptoms - dyspnea, ecchymosis, petechiae, fatigue, fever, hemorrhage, menorrhagia, occult blood in the stool, epistaxis, pallor, palpitations, progressive weakness, retinal hemorrhages, weight loss.
Large group of anemias in which there is a shortened life span of RBC's usually due to excessive destruction (most of which happens in spleen). Signs/symptoms - chills, fever, pain in back/abdomen, splenomegaly. prostration, shock, jaundice, hemoglobinuria, reticulocytosis.
Megaloblastic anemia. Inability to absorb B12 because of a lack of intrinsic factors from the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa. B12 is necessary for proper RBC development therefore there's a lack of mature erythrocytes. Signs/symptoms - weakness, fatigue, pallor, glossitis, abdominal disturbances, diarrhea, anorexia, ataxia, paresthesias, decreased sense of vibration & position, dementia, neuropsychiatric changes.
Autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy characterized by irreversibly crescent/sickle-shaped RBC's, increased hemolysis, painful crisis & increased susceptibility to infection. Most common in african american pts. Sickling may be induced by hypoxia, high altitude, acidosis, infections & dehydration. Signs/symptoms - jaundice, splenomegaly then hyposplenism, pigmented gallstones, poor healing ulcers on the legs, abdominal pain, delayed puberty, cardiomegaly, priapism, stroke. Crises caused by vaso-occlusion (mainly in bones).
Sickle cell anemia
Group of autosomal recessive disorders affecting the ability to produce hemoglobin leading to hypochromic & microcytic RBC's. Alpha & beta thalassemia are two types resulting from deficiencies in alpha & beta globulins respectively (beta form requires transfusion therapy to sustain life). Prevalent in mediterranean, middle eastern, and southeast asian areas.
Excess iron deposits throughout the body from iron overload. Treated by phlebotomy. Signs/symptoms - bronze pigmentation of skin, diabetes, hepatomegaly, eventually cardiac failure.
General increase in red blood cells (erythremia) resulting in hyperviscosity. More common in men. Signs/symptoms - none in early stages, headaches, tinnitus, vertigo, blurred vision, epistaxis, spontaneous bruising, upper GI bleed, PUD, arterial/venous occlusive events, pruritis, sweating, weight loss, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, bone tenderness. Treated w/ phlebotomy or myelotoxic drugs.
X-linked bleeding disorder secondary to clotting factor deficiency, severity depends on percentage of clotting factor present. Types include type A (factor VIII), type B/christmas disease (factor IX), von Willibrand, dietary (vitamin K deficiency). Signs/symptoms - easy bruising, bleeding tendencies, tissue hemorrhages, hemarthrosis.
Multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin
Immature blood cells in the bone marrow & peripheral circulation producing an array of neoplastic disorders. Classification based on what type of immature cells predominate in acute & chronic manifestation. If lymphocytes predominate - lymphocytic, if myeloid cells predominate - myelogenous. Causes are unknown, but may be from excessive radiation, toxins or drugs. Signs/symptoms - thrombocytopenia, infection, gingival hypertrophy, bone & joint pain, dyspnea, confusion, headaches, pale skin, purpura, petechiae, stomatitis, lymphadenopathy.
Type of leukemia in which immature granulocytes predominate. Platelets and erythrocytes are diminished because of infiltration and replacement of the bone marrow by large numbers of myeloblasts.
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
Type of leukemia in which immature lymphocytes predominate. Most often seen in children & adolescents w/ sudden onset.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
Type of leukemia in which both mature and immature granulocytes are present in large numbers in the marrow and blood. Slow progressive illness in which patients (usually over 55) may live for years without encountering life threatening problems. Presence of philadelphia chromosome is diagnostic.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
Type of leukemia in which abnormal numbers of relatively mature lymphocytes predominate in the marrow, lymphnodes, and spleen. Most common form of leukemia, usually occuring in the elderly. Slow progression.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
Abnormal increase in granulocytes in the blood. Eosinophilia seen w/ allergic conditions, Basophilia seen w/ types of leukemia.
Acute, self-limited infection occurring mainly in adolescents marked by increased numbers of mononuclear leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Transmitted mainly through saliva, incubation period is 20-50 days & course of illness is 2-4 weeks. Implicated in 90% of Burkett's lymphoma cases. Signs/symptoms - anorexia, myalgia, fever, sore throat, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, headache, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, maculopapular rash (if ampicillin is given), abdominal pain. Rarely may display as hepatitis, bell's palsy & encephalitis.
Mononucleosis (Epstein-barr virus)
Malignant neoplasm of bone marrow plasma cells. Most common primary tumor of the bone. Bence jones proteins. Signs/symptoms - bone pain, pathologic fracture, weakness & fatigue, bleeding (nose/gums), recurrent infections. Treatment w/ analgesics, radiation, palliation w/ chemo.
Autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT)
The patient serves as his or her own donor for stem cells which may lead to prolonged remission (treatment for malignant neoplasm of bone marrow)
Antiglobulin test (Coombs test)
Tests for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes. Diagnostic for hemolytic disease of the newborn, acquired hemolytic anemia, transfusion reactions, and RBC sensitization caused by drugs.
Time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound (ear lobe or forearm), normal is 8 minutes or less. Testing primary phase of hemostasis (formation of hemostatic/platelet plug). Primary screening test for coagulation disorders & single best screening for platelet function disorders.
Time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube, normal is <15 minutes
Complete blood count (CBC)
Determination of numbers of blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and red cell values. Includes; differential WBC count, RBC count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC indices, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, RBC distribution width, mean platelet volume.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
Speed at which erythrocytes settle out of anticoagulated blood in 1 hour (forming column-like clumps called rouleaux formations). Faster settling = higher ESR which indicates an alteration of blood proteins (inflammatory/necrotic processes cause this).
Percentage by volume of packed RBC's in whole blood, indirectly measuring RBC mass. Important measurement in the determination of anemia or polycythemia.
Hemoglobin test (H, Hg, Hgb, HGB)
Total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of peripheral blood (Hb concentration directly proportionate to oxygen carrying capacity). Important for evaluation of anemia.
Number of platelets per cubic millimeter of blood. Platelets are the smallest of the formed elements int eh blood necessary for clotting, vascular integrity, vasoconstriction & adhesion/aggregation activity that results in platelet plug formation.
Prothrombin time (PT/Pro time)
Test the bloods ability to clot. Evaluate heparin/coumadin therapy. Prothrombin (factor II) is produced by the liver, depends on adequate vitamin K intake/absorption, & is converted to thrombin in the clotting process.
Red blood cell count (RBC)
Number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter of blood; important in the evaluation of anemia or polycythemia.
Red blood cell morphology
Microscopic examination of a stained blood smear to determine the size, shape, structure, Hb content, & staining properties of RBCs.
White blood cell count (WBC)
Number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter of blood. Useful guide to the severity of disease process. Leukocytosis (usually caused by increase in only 1 type of leukocyte)= >11,000, leukopenia = <4,000.
White blood cell differential
Percentages of different types of leukocytes in the blood
Separation of blood into component parts and removal of a select portion from the blood. Plasmapharesis - plasma, plateletpharesis - platelets, leukopharesis - leukocytes.
Whole blood or cells are taken from a donor and infused into a patient. Autologous transfusion is the patients own blood. Prior to transfusion a compatibility test must be performed to prevent transfusion reactions.
Bone marrow biopsy
Microscopic examination of a core of bone marrow removed with a needle. This is the most valuable diagnostic/prognostic test to evaluate hematologic disorder, esp lymphoproliferative disorders such as leukemia.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Peripheral stem cells from a compatible donor are administered to a recipient
Collection and later reinfusion of a patients own blood or blood components
45% cells - erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes
55% plasma - water, sugar, proteins, salts, hormones, lipids, vitamins
4 major plasma proteins
Albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, prothrombin
Blood type %
A - 41%
B - 10%
AB - 4% (universal recipient)
O - 45% (universal donor)
Anemia resulting from a blood group incompatibility between mother & baby
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Hemolytic anemia caused by abnormal red cell membranes; almost spherical RBC's w/ no area of central pallor
Megaloblastic anemia produced by deficiency of folic acid which is necessary for DNA synthesis. Usually caused by dietary insufficiency. Signs/symptoms - malaise, fatigue, weakness, usually no neurological defects.
Folic acid deficiency anemia
Hypochromic, microcytic anemia. Anisocytosis (rbc's of unequal size). Most common type of anemia worldwide, not age related, caused by an underlying condition (blood loss, dietary deficiency, malabsorption or gastrectomy). Signs/symptoms - easy fatigability, weakness, tachycardia, palpitations, pallor, brittle nails, ice pica. In severe cases smooth tongue, cheilosis, dysphagia caused by esophageal webs.
Iron deficiency anemia
Decrease in platelets after infection (<100,000). Bruising, bleeding gums, GI bleeds, gyn bleeding, prolonged bleeding time.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)
tiny, pin point, flat spots appearing on skin
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
One-stage clotting test screening for coagulation disorders; used to monitor heparin. Detects deficiencies of intrinsic thromboplastin system & defects in the extrinsic coagulation mechanism.
Red blood cell indices
Red cell indices define the size/Hb content of RBC. Consists of mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, & mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Used in differentiation of anemias.