Musculoskeletal System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Musculoskeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal System Deck (199):
1

Ankyl/o

stiff

2

Chondr/o

cartilage

3

Kyph/o

humpback

4

Lamin/o

lamina

5

Leiomy/o

smooth muscle

6

Lord/o

curve

7

Lumb/o

lower back

8

Myel/o

bone marrow

9

Orth/o

straight

10

Oste/o

bone

11

Rhabdomy/o

skeletal muscle

12

Rheumat/o

watery flow; referring to joint fluid

13

Scoli/o

crooked

14

Spondyl/o

vertebra

15

Synov/o

synovial

16

Vertebr/o

vertebra

17

-asthenia

lack of strength

18

-blast

immature cell

19

-clast

to break

20

-desis

bind together

21

-listhesis

slipping

22

-malacia

softening

23

-physis

to grow

24

-porosis

pore, passage

25

-stenosis

narrowing

26

-tome

instrument to cut

27

-trophy

development

28

Acetabulum

rounded depression in the pelvis that joins the femur

29

Acromion

outward extension of shoulder blade; articulates w/ clavicle

30

Diaphysis

shaft of long bone

31

Epiphysis

end of long bone

32

Olecranon

large process proximal ulna

33

Osteoblast

bone building cell

34

Osteoclast

bone cell that reabsorbs bone

35

Malignant bone tumor, most commonly in long bones. More common in males, peak age 10-20.

Ewing sarcoma

36

Bony growth arising from the surface of the bone, most common type is a bunion.

Exostosis

37

Swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint near the base of the great toe, usually from wearing improper shoes (narrow toe box). Enlarged bursa often develops over the site. Aka hallux valgus

Bunion (treated w/ bunionectomy)

38

Break in a bone or bones

Fracture

39

Fracture w/ no open wound

Closed fracture

40

Fracture w/ open wound

Open fracture

41

Distal radial fracture

Colles fracture

42

Bone is in multiple pieces

Comminuted fracture

43

Bone collapses

Compression fracture

44

Bone is partially broken

Greenstick fracture

45

One fragment of bone is driven into another

Impacted fracture

46

Twisting fracture most commonly of the tibia

Spiral fracture

47

Malignant tumor arising from osteoblasts, highly malignant. 1/2 in the knee region. Symptoms are pain w/ weight bearing, at rest, and at night, fracture w/ minor trauma, lesion, and a mass. Commonly metastasis to the lungs. Bimodal distribution (adolescents & >65yo).

Osteogenic sarcoma (osteosarcoma)

48

Excess organic bone matrix secondary to defective or inadequate bone mineralization. Usually a disease of the older population (50-80). Increased alkaline phosphatase & low serum calcium. Symptoms include bone pain, tenderness, muscle weakness. Caused by vitamin D deficiency, decreased sunlight exposure & poor nutrition, also drug induced by dilantin.

Osteomalacia (Rickets when it occurs in children)

49

Acute or chronic infection of the bone & its structures caused most commonly by bacteria & rarely by other organisms. May be acquired by hematogenous, contiguous, or direct inoculation such as trauma or surgery. Commonly seen in older adults but hematogenous is bimodal. More common in males. Signs/symptoms - abrupt onset of high fever, irritability, malaise, restriction of movement in the involved extremity, signs of local inflammation, joint destruction.

Osteomyelitis

50

Multifactorial skeletal disease characterized by severe bone loss & disruption of skeletal micro-architecture sufficient to predispose to atraumatic fractures (common in vertebral column, upper femur, distal radius, proximal humerus, pubic rami & ribs). Signs/symptoms - backpain, kyphosis, scoliosis, loss of height, atraumatic fractures. Risk factors - dietary, immobilization, cigarettes, caffeine, malabsorption, steroids, excess thyroid, postmenopausal loss in caucasian & asian women very common.

Osteoporosis

51

Congenital abnormality of the hind food, patient cannot stand with the sole of the foot flat on the ground. Short tendons are lengthened & long tendons are shortened

Talipes (club foot)

52

Chronic, usually progressive condition in which inflammatory changes & new bone formation occurs at the attachment of tendons and ligaments to bone. Sacroiliac joint involvement is the hallmark, "bamboo spine". More common in caucasian men w/ symptoms beginning in early 20s. Signs/symptoms - subgluteal or low back pain/stiffness (duration >3 months, worse in morning or at rest, wake up to walk off stiffness), pleuritic chest pain, loss of lumbar lordosis.

Ankylosing spondylitis

53

Inflammatory reaction to urate crystal in joints, bones, and subcutaneous structures. Initially a hyperacute arthritis which may progress to a chronic arthritis. Predominate age 30-60, more common in males. Signs/symptoms - severe pain, swelling, redness & warmth in one or two joints (75% monoarticular), exquisite tenderness, propensity for first MTP joint (Podagra). Recurrent attacks last longer & occur more frequently w/ each recurrence.

Gout

54

Most common form of joint disease involving progressive loss of articular cartilage and reactive changes at joint margins & in subchondral bone. Prominent age is >40, leading cause of disability in those >65. Male = female. Signs/symptoms - slowly developing joint pain which follows the use of the joint, morning stiffness of s), decreased ROM, tenderness usually absent, crepitus (cracking, grinding sounds) in late stages

Osteoarthritis (OA)

55

Chronic systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology w/ a predilection for joint involvement. May be extra-articular (rheumatoid nodules, ateritis, neuropathy, scleritis, pericarditis & splenomegaly). Women 2x more than men, 30-60 yo onset. Signs/symptoms - joints most often involved are wrists, knees, elbows, shoulders, ankles, MTP's, subtalar joints; causes swelling, joint hear, joint deformity, morning stiffness, pain on PROM, early joint destruction.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

56

Most common cause of peripheral nerve compression; median nerve is compressed.Tends to affect the dominant hand, 1/2 of pt's have bilateral symptoms though. 40:60 (females>males). Signs/symptoms - tingling sensations in the fingers, burning pain int he fingers esp at night, finger sensory loss (all mostly on palmar side medial to pinky). Often relieved by shaking the hand. Tinel's & phalen's signs are positive.

Carpal tunnel syndrome

57

Dislocation

Displacement of a bone from its joint, commonly acromioclavicular, shoulder, or rarely hip.

58

Reduction

Restoration of the bones to normal positions; closed reductions are manipulative and open reductions require surgical incision

59

Subluxation

Partial or incomplete dislocation

60

Ganglion

Fluid-filled cyst arising from the joint capsule or a tendon, most commonly in the wrist, Unknown etiology

61

Herniated disc/Herniated nucleus propulsus (HNP)

Abnormal protrusion of a fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc into the neural canal or spinal canal. Posterolateral herniation is the most common form. Also known as a "slipped disk". May cause sciatica (pain radiating down the leg). Treated w/ PT, drugs, or surgery (microdiskectomy - removal of a portion of the protruding disk).

62

Multisystem infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by Ixodid ticks (deer ticks). Males = females. Risk factors - exposure to tick infested area between May & September

Lyme disease

63

Stage 1 of Lyme

erythema migrans rash (bulls-eye) <--KNOW THAT NAME!!, flu-like symptoms

64

Stage 2 of Lyme

one or more organ symptoms; neuro (15%), cardiac (8%)

65

Stage 3 of Lyme

chronic arthritis, neurologic syndromes

66

An injury to the ligaments around a joint without rupture. Ligaments are strong flexible fibers that hold bones together, when they're stretched too far or they tear the joint will become painful & swell.

Sprain

67

Multisystem autoimmune inflammatory condition characterized by a fluctuating chronic course. Female>male 10:1, 30-50yo onset. Signs/symptoms - arthritis, fever, anorexia, malaise, weight loss, skin lesions, oral ulcers, eye pain/redness, chest pain and/or SOB, pallor, malar rash, photosensitivity. Black/hispanic/asian/native americans > caucasians.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

68

Inherited progressive diseases of muscle w/ wide ranges of clinical expression. Fat replaces functional muscle cells. Motor dysfunction, muscle weakness, muscular atrophy all occur. Multiple types.

Muscular dystrophy

69

Most common form of muscular dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

70

Systemic connective tissue disease characterized by inflammatory and degenerative changes in proximal muscles. Signs/symptoms - symmetrical proximal muscle weakness causing difficulty arising from sitting/lying positions, difficulty kneeling, climbing/descending stairs, raising arms etc. Joint pain, swelling, dysphagia, respiratory impairment, sometimes characteristic rash.

Polymyositis

71

Skin rash characteristic of polymositis

Dermatomyositis

72

Antinuclear antibody test (ANA)

Most common performed screening test for autoantibodies in patients suspected of having systemic rheumatic disease. Positive test does not confirm disease

73

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR/Sed Rate)

Rate at which erythrocytes settle out of anticoagulated blood in one hour. Inflammatory and necrotic processes cause an alteration in the blood proteins. Erythrocytes “clump” together in a columnlike manner (Rouleaux formation). Not really specific to any disease, just shows something is wrong. Helpful in diagnosing temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica

74

Epiphyseal line/plate

an area of cartilage tissue that is constantly being replaced by new bone tissue as the bone grows. aka growth plate

75

Periosteum

strong, fibrous, vascular membrane covering the surfaces of bones except at the epiphyses; also has extensive nerve supply

76

Metaphysis

flared portion of the bone lying between the epiphysis and the diaphysis

77

Articular cartilage

Smooth, slick, strong covering of the ends of long bones and the surface of any bone that meets up with another bone to form a joint.

78

Compact/cortical bone

layer of dense, hard, bone that lies under the periosteum in all bones

79

Haversian canals

minute spaces filled w/ blood vessels found in compact bone

80

Medullary cavity

central hollowed out shaft of long bones containing yellow marrow (which is chiefly composed of fat cells)

81

Cancellous bone

Aka spongy or trabecular bone, much more porous & less dense than compact bone

82

Bone depression

Opening or hollow region serving as a connection for bones or passageways for blood vessels and nerves. Examples are fissure, foramen, fossa & sinus

83

Bone process

Enlarged area that extends from bones as an attachment for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Examples are bone head, condyle, epicondyle, trochanter, tubercle & tuberosity.

84

Calcium

One of the mineral constituents of bone. Calcium phosphate is the major calcium salt in bones.

85

Cartilage

Flexible, rubbery connective tissue. Found in the immature skeleton at the epiphyseal growth plate and on joint surfaces.

86

Collagen

Dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues

87

Cranial bones

Skull bones; ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid & temporal

88

Disk/disc

Flat, round, plate-like structure. An intervertebral disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae.

89

Facial bones

Bones of the face; lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, zygomatic

90

Fontanelle

Soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant

91

Foramen magnum

Opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes

92

Ligament

Fibrous tissue connecting bones to other bones; supports, strengthens & stabilizes the joint

93

Malleolus

Round process on both sides of the ankle joint; the lateral malleolus is part of the fibula and the medial malleolus is part of the tibia

94

Manubrium

Upper portion of the sternum, articulates w/ the medial aspect of the clavicle

95

Mastoid process

Round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear

96

Orthopedist

MD who specializes in bone, joint, and muscle conditions

97

Osseous tissue

bone tissue

98

Ossification

process of bone formation

99

Phosphorus

Mineral substance found in bones in combination w/ calcium

100

Physiatrist

MD specializing in rehab

101

Physic/o

function

102

Pubic symphysis

Area of confluence of the two pubic bones in the pelvis joined by a fibrocartillaginous disk

103

Sym-

together

104

Red bone marrow

found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis

105

Ribs

12 pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall; true ribs are the first 7, false are 8-10, floating are 11&12

106

Sella turcica

Depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located

107

Sinus

hollow, air filled cavity within a bone

108

Styloid process

Pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on either side of the skull

109

Suture

Immovable joint between bones, such as the skull

110

Temporomandibular joint

Connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the skull and the mandibular bone of the jaw

111

Tendon

Fibrous connective tissue connecting muscles and bones

112

Trabeculae

supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone

113

Vertebra

Individual segment of the spine composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process & lamina enclosing the neural canal

114

Xiphoid process

Lower, narrow portion of the sternum

115

Calc/o
Calci/o

calcium

116

Acetabul/o

acetabulum (hip socket)

117

Calcane/o

calcaneus

118

Carp/o

carpals (wrist bones)

119

Clavicul/o

clavicle (collar bone)

120

Cost/o

ribs (true, false, floating)

121

Crani/o

cranium

122

Femor/o

femur

123

Fibul/o

fibula

124

Humer/o

humerus

125

Ili/o

ilium

126

Ischi/o

ischium

127

Malleol/o

malleolus

128

Mandibul/o

Mandible

129

Maxill/o

maxilla

130

Metacarp/o

metacarpals

131

Metatars/o

metatarsals

132

Olecran/o

olecranon

133

Patell/o

patella

134

Pelv/i

pelvis

135

Perone/o

fibula

136

Phalang/o

phalanges

137

Pub/o

pubis

138

Radi/o

radius

139

Scapul/o

scapula

140

Stern/o

sternum

141

Tars/o

tarsals

142

Tibi/o

tibia

143

Uln/o

ulna

144

Benight exostoses composed of cartilage and bone, usually found on the metaphyses of long bones near the epiphyseal plates

Osteochondroma

145

ORIF

Open reduction, internal fixation. Insertion of metal plates, screws, rods, or pins to stabilize the bone.

146

Loss of bone mass due to osteoporosis producing posterior curvature of the spine in the thoracic region. Changes in spine can cause a loss of as much as 6-9" in height.

Kyhposis

147

Articulation

any type of joint

148

Bursa

sac of fluid near a joint; promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another

149

Meniscus

Crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure found in the knee

150

Synovial cavity

Space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane

151

Synovial fluid

Viscous fluid within the synovial cavity, similar in viscosity to egg white which accounts for the term

152

Synovial joint

freely movable joint

153

Synovial membrane

tissue lining the synovial cavity; it produces synovial fluid

154

Arthr/o

joint

155

Articul/o

joint

156

Burs/o

bursa

157

Ligament/o

ligament

158

Ten/o

tendon

159

Tendin/o

tendon

160

Injury involving overstretching of the muscle

Strain

161

Abduction

movement away from the midline of the body

162

Adduction

movement towards the midline of the body

163

Dorsiflexion

backward (upward) bending of the foot

164

Extension

straightening of a flexed limb

165

Fascia

fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles

166

Flexion

bending a limb; decreasing the angle between bones

167

Insertion of a muscle

Connection of the muscle to a bone that moves

168

Origin of a muscle

Connection of the muscle to a stationary bone

169

Plantar flexion

Bending the sole of the foot downward towards the ground

170

Pronation

turning the palm downward

171

Rotation

circular movement around a central point. Internal rotation is towards the center of the body, external rotation is away from the center of the body

172

Striated muscle

Muscle connected to bones; voluntary or skeletal muscle

173

Supination

Turning the palm upward

174

Visceral muscle

Muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle

175

Fasci/o

fascia

176

Fibr/o

fibrous connective tissue

177

My/o

muscle

178

Myocardi/o

heart muscle

179

Myos/o

muscle

180

Plant/o

sole of the foot

181

Rhabdomy/o

skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones

182

Sarc/o

muscle and flesh

183

Ab-

away from

184

Ad-

toward

185

Dorsi-

back

186

Poly-

many, much

187

Rheumatoid factor (RF)

The blood of many persons with RA contains a macroglobulin-type antibody called rheumatoid factor (RF), although RF can be found in people w/ other diseases. Test measures antibodies directed against the Fc fragment of IgG

188

Serum calcium (Ca)

Measures the concentration of total and ionized calcium in the blood to reflect parathyroid function, calcium metabolism, and malignancy activity. Calcium is bound to albumin so if albumin is low, serum calcium can be falsely low as well

189

Serum creatine kinase (CK)

Enzyme found in higher concentrations in the heart and skeletal muscles and in much smaller concentrations in brain tissue. This test is used as a specific index of injury to myocardium and muscle. CK can be divided into three isoenzymes: BB/CK1, MB/CK2, MM/CK3.

190

Uric acid test

Uric acid is formed from the breakdown of nucleonic acids and is an end product of purine metabolism; transported by the plasma from the liver to the kidney, where it is filtered and about 70% is excreted. The remainder is excreted into the GI tract and degraded. Overproduction of uric acids occurs when there is excessive cell breakdown and catabolism of nucleonic acids (gout), excessive production and destruction of cells (leukemia), or an inability to excrete the substance produced (renal failure)

191

Athrocentesis

Procedure in which a needle is inserted into a joint in order to remove fluid. Purpose is usually twofold: removal of excess fluid will usually decrease symptoms of pain and improve joint mobility and the fluid removed can be used to diagnostic of a certain problem

192

Arthrography

Radiographic examination of a joint after the injection of a dye-like contrast material and/or air to outline the soft tissue and joint structures on the images.

193

Arthroplasty

Operation for construction of a new movable joint (shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, MTP joints in the foot and certain joints in the hand). Three methods are in general use: excision arthroplasty, half-joint replacement arthroplasty, and total replacement arthroplasty.

194

Arthroscopy

visual examination of the interior of joints with special surgical instruments

195

Bone density

Dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) is the most common and preferred method of measuring bone mineral density because of its precision and low radiation exposure. It can assess fracture risk with ease and patient comfort. Test scores are reported with a T-score and a Z-score. T-score is the number of standard deviations for the patient compared with normal young adults with mean peak bone mass; fracture risk increases 1.5 to 2.5 time for every SD. The Z-score is defined as the number of SDs for the patient compared with normal persons in the same age category

196

Bone scan

Nuclear scanning test that identifies new areas of bone growth or breakdown; can be done to evaluate damage to the bones, detect cancer that has spread to the bones, and monitor conditions that can affect the bones (including infection and trauma). A bone scan can often detect a problem days to months earlier than a regular X-ray test.

197

Electromyography (EMG)

Test that assesses the health of the muscles and the nerves controlling the muscles; a needle electrode is inserted through the skin into the muscle & electrical activity detected is displayed on an oscilloscope, and may be heard through a speaker. After placement of the electrodes, the patient will be asked to contract the muscle (for example, by bending your arm). The presence, size, and shape of the wave form -- the action potential -- produced on the oscilloscope provide information about the ability of the muscle to respond when the nerves are stimulated.

198

Muscle biopsy

plays an integral role in evaluation of the patient with neuromuscular disease (essential element in the assessment of a patient with suspected myopathy)

199

Diskography

X-ray examination of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disk after injection of contrast into nucleus pulposus (interior of the disk)