Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (51):
bronchial tube (root)
pleural cavity; chest (suffix)
Midline region where bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter/exit the lung
Subacute viral illness causing fever, hoarseness, and a barking, hacking cough. Most commonly caused by parainfluenza virus. usually lasts 5-6 days in children age 1-3.
Acute infection of the throat and upper resp. tract caused by bacteria. rare in US. adherent membrane all over back of throat that bleeds when removed. sore throat, adenopathy, fever, malaise.
Nosebleed. Most common cause is trauma. Bleeding responds with pressure.
Highly communicable respiratory bacterial infection. Produces a paroxysmal spasmodic cough, ending in high pitched whoop or crow. Incubation can be 3+ weeks.
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Reversible airway disease caused by hyperresponsiveness of alveoli to a variety of stimuli. airway obstructed by inflammation of mucosa. wheezing, dry/chronic cough, tight chest.
Chronic, irreversible abnormal dilation of the bronchi. Usually accompanied by infection and productive cough. Cough, sputum, hemoptysis, wheezing, rales, cyanosis, clubbing, barrel chest.
Acute, progress inflammation of the bronchioles usually seen in children
Excessive productive cough for 3 months over at least 2 consecutive years. Usually in pts over 35. Airway obstruction as a result of increased secretion of bronchial mucus and hyperplasia of mucosal lining of airways."blue bloaters". productive cough, sputum, difficulty breathing, wheezes, rhonchi
Autosomal recessive disorder of infants, children, young adults. Widespread dysfunction of exocrine glands.Chronic pulmonary disease, pancreatic insufficiency, high electrolytes in sweat. Most common lethal genetic disease; most males are infertile.
"Lung collapse." incomplete expansion of alveoli. common to occur after surgery. tachypnea, cough, hypoxia, dull to percussion, decreased chest expansion.
COPD characterized by enlargement of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles, alveolar wall destruction. Age >50, mild cough, dyspnea, barrel chest, hyper resonant to percusson. "pink puffers"
Central location, sensitive to chemotherapy, surgery not indicated, poor prognosis (2-4 months from diagnosis to death)
Small cell lung cancer
90% of lung cancer. Squamous, large cell, and adenocarcinoma. Poor response to chemotherapy, treated with surgery if early stage. Prognosis varies.
Non-Small cell lung cancer
Leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the US.
Occupational pulmonary fibrotic disease resulting in the inhalation of an offending agent. Well-defined pulmonary nodular fibrosis.
Black lung disease (coal dust)
Infection of the lung parenchyma. Organisms invade the lower respiratory tract via inhalation, aspiration, etc. Fever, productive cough, purulent sputum, dyspnea, chills, wheezing, rales.
Infection of the lung resulting from material aspirated. Superior segment of a lower lobe and posterior segment of an upper lobe are most commonly affected. Acute onset, fever, mailaise, anorexia, weight loss, productive cough, decreased breath sounds
swelling and fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles. SOB, DOE, PND, orthopnea, cough, pink frothy sputum, rales, tachycardia, often seen with CHF.
Blood clot obstructing pulmonary vasculature. anxiety, apprehension, diaphoresis, cp, cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, fever, cyanosis
pulmonary embolism (PE)
Scarring of the lung. Air sacs become replaced by fibrotic tissue. Irreversible loss of tissue's ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream.
Non-infections multisystem disease of uknown causes; small nodules (granulomas) develop. Bilateral hilar adenopathy, pulmonary infiltrates, ocular and skin lesions. More common in African Americans and females. Treat with steroids.
Cough, sputum production, hemoptysis, fever, night sweats, weight loss, malaise, adenopathy, pleuritic chest pain.
Malignant tumor from the pleura. Associated with exposure to asbestos.
Accumulation of excessive fluid in the pleural space resulting from an underlying disease. Transudative or exudative. pleuritic chest pain and dyspnea, decreased breath sounds, dull percussion
Inflammation of the pleura, characterized by sharp, localized, fleeting chest pain. Pain may refer to the shoulders.