deck_2120929 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > deck_2120929 > Flashcards

Flashcards in deck_2120929 Deck (140):
1

Pathway of air from nose to lungs

Nose (nares) --> Nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses --> Pharynx (adenoids & tonsils) --> Larynx (epiglottis) --> Trachea --> Bronchi --> Bronchioles --> Alveoli --> Lung capillaries (bloodstream)

2

Adenoids

lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx; pharyngeal tonsils

3

Alveolus (pl. alveoli)

air sac in the lung

4

Apex of the lung

tip or uppermost portion of the lung; apical

5

Base of the lung

lower portion of the lung; basilar

6

Bronchioles

smallest branches of the bronchi, terminal bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts

7

Bronchus (pl. bronchi)

Branch of the trachea (windpipe) that is a passageway into the lung; bronchial tube

8

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Gas produced by body cells when oxygen and carbon atoms from food combine; exhaled through lungs

9

Cilia

Thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract. They clear bacteria and foreign substances from the lung.

10

Diaphragm

Muscle separating the chest and abdomen; it contracts to pull air into the lungs and relaxes to push air out

11

Epiglottis

Lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx preventing food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing

12

Expiration

Breathing out (exhalation)

13

Glottis

Slit-like opening to the larynx

14

Hilum of the lung

Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs; hilar

15

Inspiration

Breathing in (inhalation)

16

Larynx

Voice box; containing the vocal cords

17

Lobe

Division of a lung

18

Mediastinum

Region between the lungs in the chest cavity. It contains the trachea, heart, lymph nodes, aorta, esophagus, and bronchial tubes.

19

Nares

Openings through the nose carrying air into the nasal cavities

20

Oxygen (O2)

Gas that makes up 21 percent of air. It passes into the bloodstream at the lungs and travels to all body cells.

21

Palatine tonsil

One of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx (palatine means pertaining to the roof of the mouth)

22

Paranasal sinus

One of the air cavities in the bones near the nose

23

Parietal pleura

Outer layer of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall

24

Pharynx

Throat; including the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx

25

Pleura

Double-layered membrane surrounding each lung

26

Pleural cavity

Space between the folds of the pleura

27

Pulmonary parenchyma

Essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli

28

Respiration

Process of moving air into and out of the lungs; breathing

29

Trachea

Windpipe

30

Visceral pleura

Inner layer of pleura lying closer to the lung tissue

31

Adenoid/o

adenoids

32

Alveol/o

alveolus, air sac

33

Bronch/oBronchi/o

bronchial tube, bronchus

34

Bronchiol/o

bronchiole, small bronchus

35

Capn/o

carbon dioxide

36

Coni/o

dust

37

Cyan/o

blue

38

Epiglott/o

epiglottis

39

Laryng/o

larynx, voice box

40

Lob/o

lobe of the lung

41

Mediastin/o

mediastinum

42

Nas/o

nose

43

Orth/o

straight, upright

44

Ox/o

oxygen

45

Pector/o

chest

46

Pharyng/o

pharynx, throat

47

Phon/o

voice

48

Phren/o

diaphragm

49

Pleur/o

pleura

50

Pneum/oPneumon/o

air, lung

51

Pulmon/o

lung

52

Rhin/o

nose

53

Sinus/o

sinus, cavity

54

Spir/o

breathing

55

Tel/o

complete

56

Thorac/o

chest

57

Tonsill/o

tonsils

58

Trache/o

trachea, windpipe

59

-ema

condition

60

-osmia

smell

61

-pnea

breathing

62

-ptysis

spitting

63

-sphyxia

pulse

64

-thorax

pleural cavity, chest

65

Auscultation

listening to sounds within the body

66

Percussion

tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure

67

Pleural rub (friction rub)

scratchy sound produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each other

68

Rales (crackles)

Fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation during inhalation when there is fluid in the alveoli

69

Ronchi (singular: rhonchus)

Loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum

70

Sputum

Material expelled from the bronchi, lungs, or upper respiratory tract by spitting.

71

Purulent

Containing pus

72

Stridor

Strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx

73

Wheezes

Continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing

74

subacute viral infection of infants and children (age 1-3) with obstruction of the larynx, accompanied by barking cough and stridor. Usually lasts 5-6 days, symptoms worse at night. Commonly caused by PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS!! or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

Croup

75

Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by corynebacterium. Inflammation occurs w/ a leathery, opaque, adherent membrane forming in the pharynx and trachea, bleeds when removed. Sore throat, adenopathy, fever, malaise. Treated with erythromycin or penicillin. Rare in the US.

Diphtheria

76

Nosebleed. Most common cause is trauma, bleeding usually responds with pressure (sometimes needs to be packed & cauterized)

Epistaxis

77

Whooping cough; highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella. Characterized by paroxysmal (violent, sudden) spasms of coughing ending in whooping inspiration. Transmission by direct contact, incubation period can be 3+ weeks.

Pertussis

78

Reversible airway disease caused by hyperresponsiveness of alveoli to a variety of stimuli. Inflammation of the airway mucosa, increased mucus production & edema obstruct airway. Associated w/ aspirin sensitivity & nasal polyps. Many causes; allergen mediated, occupational, cardiac, drug-induced, exercise-induced, cold-induced, GERD. Oftentimes eosinophils are involved. Signs/symptoms - diffuse wheezing, dry/chronic cough, tight feeling in chest, dyspnea, prolonged expiratory phase.

Asthma

79

Chronic, irreversible, abnormal dilation of the bronchi, usually accompanied by infection & productive cough w/ large amounts of malodorous sputum. Signs/symptoms - cough, sputum, hemoptysis, wheezing, coarse or moist rales, cyanosis, clubbing, barrel chest.

Bronchiectasis

80

Inflammation of bronchi persisting over a long time (excessive productive cough for 3 months over at least 2 consecutive years in the absence of any other diseases that produce similar symptoms); type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Signs/symptoms - persistent productive cough, copious sputum, intermittent breathing difficulty, wheezes, pt's usually overweight (blue bloaters). Usually occurring in pt's over 35, smokers.

Chronic bronchitis

81

Autosomal recessive disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucinous secretions in the respiratory tract that do not drain normally. Most common lethal genetic disease, most males are infertile. Chronic pulmonary disease, pancreatic insufficiency, abnormally high levels of electrolytes in the sweat & less frequently biliary cirrhosis & diabetes mellitus.

Cystic fibrosis (CF)

82

Collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli. Small ones often asymptomatic but large ones cause tachypnea, cough, hypoxia, dull to percussion, decreased chest expansion. Commonly occurs after surgery (post-op fevers). Use incentive spirometry.

Atelectasis

83

Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls; type of COPD. Signs/symptoms - >50yo, thin/wasted appearance (pink puffers), mild cough usually in the morning, progressive dyspnea, barrel chest, hypertrophic accessory muscles of respiration, hyper-resonant to percussion, prolonged expiratory phase. Often caused by cigarette smoking but also genetic predisposition, environmental pollution, occupational exposure, allergy, infections.

Emphysema

84

Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchi. Leading cause of cancer death in both men & women in the US (increasing in women, decreasing in men). Smoking/2nd hand smoke, asbestos, arsenic, nickel & radon gas exposure.

Lung cancer

85

Occupational pulmonary fibrotic disease resulting from the inhalation of an offending agent; produces fibrotic lung changes after the inhalation of dusts. Characterized by well-defined pulmonary nodular fibrosis & in more advanced stages diffuse fibrosis of the lung & severe pulmonary impairment.

Pneumoconiosis

86

Black lung disease, coal dust exposure

Anthracosis

87

Asbestos particles in the lungs

Asbestosis

88

Silica or glass particles in the lungs

Silicosis

89

Acute inflammation and infection of alveoli (lung parenchyma), which fill up with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction. Organisms invade the lower respiratory tract via inhalation/aspiration or hematogenous spread. May be viral (more common in children) or bacterial (streptococcus is most common). Cigarette smoking/chronic bronchitis predispose pt's to infection. Signs/symptoms - fever, productive cough, purulent sputum, dyspnea, shaking chills, wheezing, rales.

Pneumonia

90

Lung infection from aspirated material, usually single lung either in superior segment of a lower lobe or the posterior segment of an upper lobe. May produce a cavity filled w/ fluid/air. Associated w/ periodontal disease, foreign body obstruction & immunocompromised state. Risk factors include CNS diseases, seizures, anesthesia & LOC due to drug/alcohol abuse. Signs/symptoms - acute onset fever, malaise, anorexia, weight loss, productive cough, foul-smelling sputum, decreased breath sounds, dullness over affected area of lung.

Pulmonary abcess

91

Swelling & fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles. Often seen w/ CHF. Signs/symptoms - SOB, DOE, PND (paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea), orthopnea, cough, pink frothy sputum, moist rales, tachycardia, air hunger, noisy respiration.

Pulmonary edema

92

Obstruction in pulmonary vasculature, often originating in deep venous system of legs (usually blood clot but could be air, fat, foreign bodies, amniotic fluid, or tumor cell embolisms). Risk factors - immobility, estrogen use, femoral venous catheter, obesity, polycythemia vera, lupus, malignancy, heart failure, a-fib. Signs/symptoms - anxiety, apprehension, diaphoresis, chest pain, cough, dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, hemoptysis, leg pain/swelling, low grade fever, cyanosis & syncope in severe cases.

Pulmonary embolism (PE)

93

Formation of scar tissue in the lung that gradually replaces the normal air sacs of the lungs. Scar tissue is thicker than normal tissue resulting in an irreversible loss of oxygen exchange abilities. Results from injury to lungs; pneumonia, tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, inhaled pollutants, certain medications & systemic diseases.

Pulmonary fibrosis

94

Non-infectious multisystem (liver, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, heart, CNS) disease of unknown causes in which small nodules (granulomas) develop. More common in african americans & females. Treated w/ steroids. Presents w/ bilateral hilar adenopathy, pulmonary infiltrates, ocular & skin lesions.

Sarcoidosis

95

Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium, lungs usually are involved but any organ in the body may be affected. Screen w/ PPD skin test, also should evaluate pt for HIV. Signs/symptoms - cough, sputum production, hemoptysis, fever, night sweats, weight loss, malaise, adenopathy, pleuritic chest pain.

Tuberculosis (TB)

96

Rare, malignant tumor arising in the pleura. Associated w/ asbestos exposure (15-40 years afterwards). Associated w/ pleural effusions.

Mesothelioma

97

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space secondary to underlying disease. Signs/symptoms - pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, decreased breath sounds & tactile fremitus, dullness to percussion, tracheal deviation toward unaffected side in severe cases.

Pleural effusion

98

Pleural effusion from cancer, pneumonia, PE's

Exudative

99

Pleural effusion from CHF, cirrhosis, kidney dialysis, nephrotic syndrome, myxedema

Transudative

100

Inflammation of the pleura caused by viral infection, pneumonia, emphysema, TB, uremia, cancer, or collagen vascular disease. Signs/symptoms - sharp, localized, fleeting chest pain (may feel it in shoulders too) made worse by coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. Rapid or shallow breathing, respiratory excursion diminished on affected side, decreased breath sounds, pleural friction rub.

Pleurisy (pleuritis)

101

Collection of air in the pleural space caused by a break in the lung surface. Signs/symptoms (depend on size) - sudden, sharp chest pain on affected side, dyspnea. Treated w/ oxygen supplementation, needle aspiration, tube thoracostomy, & pleurodesis (surgical joining of pleural layers).

Pneumothorax

102

Failure of the right side of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the lungs because of underlying lung disease

Cor pulmonale

103

Collection of fluid in the pleural cavity

Hydrothorax

104

Collection of fluid or other material within the lung as seen on a chest film, CT scan, or other radiologic image

Infiltrate

105

Chest x-ray (CXR, chest film)

Radiographic image of the thoracic cavity (chest, lungs, heart, large arteries, ribs & diaphragm.

106

Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest

Computer generated series of x-ray images show thoracic structures in cross section and other planes. Esp useful because it can simultaneously show many different types of tissues. Modern CT scans utilize spiral or helical CT process, captures pictures at many angles allowing for "slice" views.

107

Pulmonary angiography

X-ray pictures of pulmonary blood vessels w/ injected contrast material used to detect PE's

108

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest

Very detailed pictures of structures of the chest from any angle. Good for cancer detection & staging. May reveal diseased heart valves. Good, non-invasive way of showing flow in lymph nodes & blood vessels.

109

Positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung

Radioactive glucose is injected and images reveal metabolic activity in the lungs. Helpful for identification of malignancies which have a higher metabolic activity.

110

Ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan

Detection device records radioactivity in the lung after injection of a radioisotope or inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas (xenon). Measures both airflow & blood-flow looking for PE's.

111

Bronchoscopy

Fiberoptic endoscope examination of the lower airways including larynx, trachea, bronchi & bronchioles. Also used to collect specimens for culture.

112

Bronchoalveolar lavage

Bronchial washing; fluid is injected and withdrawn

113

Bronchial brushing

A brush is inserted through a bronchoscope and is used to scrape off tissue

114

Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)

Performed during bronchoscopy to diagnose and stage lung cancer, can be used to guide a forceps biopsy

115

Endotracheal intubation

Placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea to establish an airway or administer oxygen, gaseous medication or anesthetics. May also be done to remove blockages, view the interior walls, or place pt on a mechanical ventilator

116

Laryngoscopy

Visual examination of the voice box

117

Lung biopsy

Removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination

118

Mediastinoscopy

Endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum using a mediastinoscope. Used to visualize, examine & biopsy lymph nodes (particularly in lung cancer diagnosis/staging).

119

Pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

Tests that measure the ventilation mechanics of the lungs; airway function, lung volume, and the capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide efficiently.

120

Thoracentesis

Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space. May be diagnostic to determine the etiology of a pleural effusion or therapeutic to relieve respiratory insufficiency due to a large pleural effusion.

121

Thoracotomy

Large surgical incision of the chest usually done as a last resort in pt's w/ pulmonary problems of unknown etiology in order to diagnose focal or diffuse issues.

122

Thoracoscopy (thorascopy)

Visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope. VATS = video=assisted thorascopy

123

Tracheostomy

Surgical creation of a temporary or permanent opening into the trachea through the neck; tracheotomy is the incision necessary to create a tracheostomy. The hole is called a stoma.

124

Tuberculin test

Determines past or present tuberculosis infection based on positive skin reaction. Small amount of TB protein (called PPD, purified protein derivative) put under top layer of skin, if pt has been exposed they develop firm red bump within 2 days. Called mantoux skin test, cannot tell if infection is active or latent.

125

Tube thoracostomy

A flexible, plastic chest tube is passed into the pleural space through the ribs to continuously remove air (pneumothorax), fluid (pleural effusion), or pus (empyema)

126

The removal of a small, localized area of diseased tissue near the surface of the lung; pulmonary structure and function are relatively unchanged after healing

Wedge resection

127

The removal of a bronchiole and its alveoli (one or more lung segments). The remaining lung tissue expands to fill the previously occupied space.

Segmental resection

128

The removal of an entire lobe of the lung. Afterwards, the remaining lung increases in size to fill the space in the thoracic cavity.

Lobectomy

129

The removal of an entire lung, techniques such as removal of ribs and elevation of the diaphragm are used to reduce the size of the empty thoracic space.

Pneumonectomy

130

Nasal CPAP

Continuous positive airway pressure mask; the pressure applied by air coming from the compressor opens the oropharynx and nasopharynx

131

Spirometer

Measures the volume and rate of air passing into and out of the lung

132

Airways are narrowed resulting in resistance to air flow during breathing. Examples include asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis, CF, and bronchiolitis

Obstructive lung disease

133

Expansion of the lung is limited by disease that affects the chest wall, pleura, or lung tissue itself. Decreased total lung capacity (TLC). Examples include pulmonary fibrosis, radiation damage to the lung, pneumoconiosis, myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, and diaphragmatic weakness/paralysis.

Restrictive lung disease

134

Acute, progressive inflammation of the bronchiole walls, usually seen in children

Bronchiolitis

135

Central location malignancy that is sensitive to chemotherapy. Surgery is not indicated. Poor prognosis (2-4 months from diagnosis to death).

Small cell lung cancer

136

90% of lung cancers including squamous, large cell & adenocarcinoma. Poor response to chemotherapy but surgery if early stage. Prognosis varies w/ stage.

Non-small cell lung cancer

137

Pneumothorax that occurs most commonly in tall, thin, young males w/ no underlying lung disease.

Primary spontaneous pneumothorax

138

Pneumothorax that occurs w/ diminished breath sounds, decreased tactile fremitus & hyporesonance.

Large pneumothorax

139

Pneumothorax resulting from major trauma presenting w/ tachycardia, hypotension, mediastinal or tracheal deviation.

Tension pneumothorax

140

Magnetic resonance angiography

Special MRI used to demonstrate narrowing of coronary arteries or actual blockage by fatty deposits. May also show aneurysms or a torn inner lining of an artery (dissection).