Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (196):
1

Ather/o

yellowish plaque; fatty substance

2

Atri/o

atrium

3

Brachi/o

arm

4

Cardi/o

heart

5

Coron/o

heart

6

Cyan/o

blue

7

Phleb/o

vein

8

Ven/o

vein

9

Ven/i

vein

10

Sphygm/o

pulse

11

Steth/o

chest

12

Thromb/o

clot

13

Vas/o

vessel

14

Vascul/o

vessel

15

Diastole

relaxation phase of the heart beat

16

Murmur

abnormal heart sound

17

Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR)

heart beat originating in the SA node in patients at rest of 60-100 bpm

18

Sphygmomanometer

instrument to measure blood pressure

19

Systole

contraction phase of heart beat

20

First Heart Sound (S1)

-closure of AV valves -beginning of systole -mitral (M1) slightly precedes tricuspid (T1) component -commonly fused as 1 sound -loudest at apex -coincides w/ carotid pulse

21

Second Heart Sound (S2)

-closure of semilunar valves -end of systole -aortic (A2) precedes pulmonic (P2) -loudest at base, best heard in aortic and pulmonic areas -may become 2 components during inspiration, single sound as breath exhaled -S2 splitting greatest at peak of inspiration (varies from easy to hear to nondetectable)

22

Arrhythmias

abnormal heart rhythms (dysrhythmia) ex - heart block, flutter, fibrillation

23

Heart block

failure of proper conduction of impulses through the AV node to the bundle of His

24

Atrial flutter

rapid but regular contractions of atria, saw-tooth appearance

25

Atrial fibrillation

rapid, random, ineffectual and irregular contractions of the atria

26

Ventricular fibrillation

rapid, random, ineffectual and irregular contractions of the ventricles

27

Coarctation of Aorta

-severe narrowing of descending aorta usually at the junction of the ductus arteriosus and the aortic arch (ligamentum arteriosum) -associated w/ defects of aortic valve in 75-80% of cases -upper extremity hypertension (20mmHg higher than lower extremity) -absent or diminished femoral pulses -systolic murmur at left sternal border (LSB), radiates to back

28

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

-failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth -75% of the time occurs as an isolated defect -Signs/symptoms; failure to grow, recurrent respiratory infections, easy fatigability, DOE (dyspnea on exertion), SOB (shortness of breath), angina, syncope, CONTINUOUS MACHINERY MURMUR, thrill at left upper sternal border, bounding pulses -premature infants at increased risk -75% close within 3 months

29

Angi/o

vessel

30

Aort/o

aorta

31

Arter/o Arteri/o

artery

32

Cholesterol/o

cholesterol (a lipid substance)

33

Myx/o

mucus

34

Ox/o

oxygen

35

Pericardi/o

pericardium

36

Rrhythm/o

rhythm

37

Valvul/o Valv/o

valve

38

Ventricul/o

ventricle, lower heart chamber

39

Atrial septal defect

-defect or opening in the atrial septum allowing flow of blood between the two chambers (shunting is typically L to R) -childhood symptoms usually minimal (sometimes failure to thrive & frequent pulmonary infections -adult symptoms; easy fatigability, DOE, heart failure -surgical repair delayed until preschool age (2-4) -females > males

40

Ventricular septal defect

-congenital or acquired defect of the interventricular septum that allows communication of blood between L and R ventricles; most common congenital heart defect (can occur after MI as well) -male = female -symptoms depend on the degree of shunting across the defect; respiratory distress, tachypnea, holosystolic murmur

41

Tetralogy of Fallot

-blood doesn't get oxygenated; thrill, S1 normal, loud A2, diminished P2 (murmur loud, crescendo-decrescendo). Cyanosis at birth Four components -Right ventricular outflow stenosis (pulmonic stenosis) -VSD -Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) -Overriding aorta (dextroposition of aorta)

42

Congestive heart failure (CHF)

-principle complication of heart disease, produced by an abnormality in cardiac pump function (heart can't transport blood sufficiently to meet metabolic needs) -most common inpatient diagnosis for pt's >65 -DOE is cardinal sign of left heart failure -Also nocturia, deteriorating exercise capacity, fatigue, dyspnea, weakness, tachypnea w/ mild exertion, nocturnal productive cough, orthopnea, PND (paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea), wheezing (esp nocturnal)

43

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

-arteriosclerosis; deposition of fatty compounds on tunica interna resulting in thickening & loss of elasticity of arterial walls progressively blocking coronary arteries & their branches -chronic process, risk factors are HTN (hypertension), DM (diabetes mellitus), tobacco, obesity, male (males>females), physical inactivity, increasing age, family history

44

Acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)

Conditions caused by myocardial ischemia, including... -Unstable angina; chest pain at rest or pain of increasing frequency, intensity, or duration (nitroglycerine) -Acute myocardial infarction; MONA (morphine, oxygen, nitrates, aspirin) & early revascularization

45

Endocarditis

-inflammation of the inner lining of the heart resulting from infection, primarily of the valvular endocardium and occasionally the mural endocardium -male>female (slightly); fever, night sweats, anorexia, heart murmur, chest pain, SOB, cough -treat w/ IV antibiotics

46

Hypertensive heart disease

-high blood pressure affecting the heart -left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) from overworking & coronary artery disease (CAD) -conduction abnormalities & systolic and diastolic disfunction

47

Mitral valve prolapse

-improper closure of mitral valve; valve is competent in early systole but prolapses into atrium later in systole -late systolic murmur, midsystolic clicks -apex & left sternal border -easily missed in supine position (also listen in upright position)

48

Murmur

-extra heart sound heard between normal beats -blowing, swooshing sounds due to turbulent blood flow & collision currents -can happen if velocity of blood increases (flow murmur), if viscosity of blood decreases, or if there are structural defects in the valves or unusual opening in chambers -a thrill (vibration felt on palpation of chest) often accompanies murmurs

49

Pericarditis

-inflammation of the pericardium -symptoms include chest pain (retrosternal w/ radiation to back) which is typically sharp & sudden in onset, made worse with inspiration/movement and reduced by leaning forward & sitting up. also splinted breathing, fever, myalgia, and pericardial friction rub -can lead to cardiac tamponade

50

Rheumatic heart disease

-rheumatic fever is preceded by strep group A infection -causes inflammation & scarring of heart valves leading to pericarditis, myocarditis, valvular insufficiency (mitral stenosis), atrial fibrillation, and possibly CHF

51

Aneurysm (aortic)

-a permanent localized dilation of the abdominal aorta having at least 50% increase in diameter compared to expected diameter, mostly asymptomatic -may present w/ rupture, embolism, or thrombosis; pulsatile epigastric mass, vague abdominal pain (radiate to back or flank), vertebral body erosion -male>female (4:1) -management/indications for surgery dictated by natural history of aneurysm, type, and size

52

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT)

-blood clot in a large vein, usually lower limb -common in pt's on prolonged bed rest, those w/ chronic debilitating disease, and malignancies -pain or tenderness in claf/thigh, usually unilateral although it may be asymptomatic with PE as primary presentation

53

Hypertension (HTN)

-high blood pressure (either systolic >140, diastolic >90 consistently) -many factors; amount of blood pumped by heart, size/condition of arteries, volume of water, salt content, condition of kidneys, nervous system, hormone levels -essential = no identifiable cause (may be genetic, environmental, or dietary) -secondary = HTN caused by another disorder (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, adrenal disorder)

54

Peripheral artery disease (PAD)

-blockage of arteries carrying blood to legs, arms, kidneys and other organs (usually lower extremities) due to atherosclerosis -intermittent claudication (absence of pain/discomfort at rest but pain/tension/weakness while walking) -treat with exercise, avoidance of nicotine (vasoconstriction), and treatment of risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes)

55

Raynaud phenomenon/disease

-bilaterally occurring vasospastic disorder manifested by intermittent attacks of extreme pallor, then cyanosis of the fingers/toes (thumbs rarely involved) brought on by cold exposure. with warming vasodilation & intense redness develops followed by swelling, throbbing & paresthesias -may also accompany emotional upset or cigarette smoking -female>male (4:1) -phenomenon is secondary to other conditions such as atherosclerosis, lupus, or scleroderma whereas disease is of uncertain cause in otherwise healthy pt's

56

Varicose veins

-elongated, dilated, tortuous superficial veins w/ congenitally absent valves or valves that have become incompetent resulting in blood pooling & distended veins -20% of all adults, female>male (5:1) -sometimes asymptomatic, otherwise; leg cramps, dilation/tortuosity of superficial veins, edema of effected limb, leg aches, fatigue, pain (if ulceration develops)

57

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor

antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II causing blood vessels to dilate. prevents heart attacks, CHF, stroke, and death.

58

Auscultation

listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope

59

Beta-blocker

drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias by blocking the action of epinephrine at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat, and reducing workload on the heart

60

Biventricular pacemaker

device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more blood is pumped out of the heart

61

Bruit

abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ

62

Calcium channel blocker

drug used to treat angina and hypertension, dilates blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels

63

Cardiac arrest

sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action, often leading to sudden cardiac death

64

Digoxin

drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heart

65

Patent

Open

66

Pericardial friction rub

scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis

67

Statins

drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream

68

Thrill

vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow (such as a blocked artery)

69

Vegetations

clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves

70

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

-blood test that differentiates cardiac from pulmonary causes of dyspnea (>100pg/mL in heart failure)

71

Serum enzyme tests/Cardiac biomarkers

-chemicals are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack -troponin-I (cTnI) and troponin-T (cTnT) (very specific & sensitive to cardiac injury, elevated within 3 hours and can stay elevated >1 week) -myoglobin (elevated but nonspecific) -creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) (elevated but nonspecific) -CK MB isoenzyme (specific)

72

Lipid tests

-measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides in a blood sample; includes total cholesterol, HDL (good), LDL (bad), and triglycerides -lipoprotein electrophoresis is the process which separates the types of lipoproteins

73

Angiography

x-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast into an artery

74

Computed tomography angiography (CTA)

three dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries, less invasive than angioplasty

75

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels (x-rays w/ and w/o contrast are superimposed to create one image)

76

Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or EBT)

electron beams and CT identifies calcium deposits in and around the coronary arteries, may diagnose early CAD. results in a coronary artery calcium score which indicates future risk of heart attack/stroke

77

Echocardiography (ECHO)

high-frequency sound waves and echoes produce images of the heart, done transthoracid or transesophageal (TEE). detects cardiac masses, prosthetic valve function, aneurysms, and pericardial fluid

78

Doppler ultrasound studies

sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels used to hear vessel obstruction. Duplex ultrasound combines doppler & conventional ultrasound can be used to diagnose artery occlusion, aneurysms, varicose veins etc.

79

Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

-shows blood flow and myocardial function after uptake of radioactive glucose, used to detect CAD, myocardial dysfunction, ischemic heart disease, and cardiomyopathy

80

Technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan

-technetium 99m sestamibi is injected IV and taken up in areas of an MI -also used w/ an exercise tolerance test (ETT-MIBI) to define areas of poor blood flow in heart muscle

81

Thallium 201 scan

-concentration of radioactive substance is measured in myocardium, infarcted or scarred myocardium show up as "cold spots"

82

Cardiac MRI

images of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field, helpful with aneurysms, cardiac output, wall thickness & patency of vessels. contraindicated w/ pacemakers.

83

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)

new type of MRI that gives detailed images of blood vessels, uses gadolinium as contrast agent

84

Cardiac catheterization

-thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or artery to detect pressures & patterns of blood flow. contrast may be injected & x-ray images taken in a process called coronary angiography which is the gold standard for diagnosing CAD. -helps define site, severity & morphology of lesions as well as a qualitative assessment of blood flow. look for potentially viable areas of myocardium which may benefit from a revascularization procedure.

85

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG)

-record of electricity flowing through the heart, performed continuously through telemetry

86

Holter monitoring

-ECG device worn for 24 hours to detect arrhythmias, rhythm changes are correlated w/ symptoms recorded in a diary

87

Stress test

-ETT (exercise tolerance test) determines the heart's response to physical exertion -Pt placed on treadmill and attached to monitor which records vitals and EKG rhythms

88

Catheter ablation

brief delivery of radio-frequency energy to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias

89

Cardioversion

the process of restoring the heart's normal rhythm from an abnormal rhythm, most elective cardioversions are performed to treat a-fib, a-flutter, and supraventricular tachycardia

90

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)

bypassing blockages in coronary arteries with a blood vessel taken from another part of the patient's body (internal mammary, radial, and saphenous vessels)

91

Defibrillation

technique used in emergency medicine to terminate v-fib or v-tach. uses electrical shock to reset electrical state of the heart so that it may beat to a rhythm controlled by its own natural pacemaker cells. NOT effective for asystole (flatline) and pulseless electrical activity (PEA)

92

Endarterectomy

surgical removal of plaque from an artery taht has become narrowed or blocked, commonly on carotid arteries.

93

Extracorporeal circulation

diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous w/ body circulation; heart-lung machine. used for heart repair surgery. uses the technique of ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation)

94

Heart transplantation

surgical transplant procedure performed on patients w/ end stage heart failure or severe CAD, most commonly the new heart is taken from a recently deceased organ donor. The pt's own heart may either be removed (orthotopic procedure) or less commonly left in to support donor heart (heterotropic procedure)

95

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place to prevent restenosis. typically catheter is threaded through an artery in the groin, known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (aka PTCA, coronary artery balloon dilation, or balloon angioplasty)

96

Left ventricular assist device (LVAD)

patients placed on a booster pump when waiting for a heart transplant, often called "bridge to transplant"

97

Thrombolytic therapy

Thrombolytic agents are given to dissolve abnormal thromboses; streptokinase (SK), urokinase (UK), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). These restore blood flow and limit irreversible damage to heart muscle after an MI, reducing mortality by 25%.

98

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

Placement of a balloon-expandable aortic heart valve into the body via a femoral artery catheter; minimally invasive procedure used to treat aortic stenosis

99

yellowish plaque; fatty substance

Ather/o

100

atrium

Atri/o

101

arm

Brachi/o

102

heart

Cardi/o

103

heart

Coron/o

104

blue

Cyan/o

105

vein

Phleb/o

106

vein

Ven/o

107

vein

Ven/i

108

pulse

Sphygm/o

109

chest

Steth/o

110

clot

Thromb/o

111

vessel

Vas/o

112

vessel

Vascul/o

113

relaxation phase of the heart beat

Diastole

114

abnormal heart sound

Murmur

115

heart beat originating in the SA node in patients at rest of 60-100 bpm

Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR)

116

instrument to measure blood pressure

Sphygmomanometer

117

contraction phase of heart beat

Systole

118

-closure of AV valves -beginning of systole -mitral (M1) slightly precedes tricuspid (T1) component -commonly fused as 1 sound -loudest at apex -coincides w/ carotid pulse

First Heart Sound (S1)

119

-closure of semilunar valves -end of systole -aortic (A2) precedes pulmonic (P2) -loudest at base, best heard in aortic and pulmonic areas -may become 2 components during inspiration, single sound as breath exhaled -S2 splitting greatest at peak of inspiration (varies from easy to hear to nondetectable)

Second Heart Sound (S2)

120

abnormal heart rhythms (dysrhythmia) ex - heart block, flutter, fibrillation

Arrhythmias

121

failure of proper conduction of impulses through the AV node to the bundle of His

Heart block

122

rapid but regular contractions of atria, saw-tooth appearance

Atrial flutter

123

rapid, random, ineffectual and irregular contractions of the atria

Atrial fibrillation

124

rapid, random, ineffectual and irregular contractions of the ventricles

Ventricular fibrillation

125

-severe narrowing of descending aorta usually at the junction of the ductus arteriosus and the aortic arch (ligamentum arteriosum) -associated w/ defects of aortic valve in 75-80% of cases -upper extremity hypertension (20mmHg higher than lower extremity) -absent or diminished femoral pulses -systolic murmur at left sternal border (LSB), radiates to back

Coarctation of Aorta

126

-failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth -75% of the time occurs as an isolated defect -Signs/symptoms; failure to grow, recurrent respiratory infections, easy fatigability, DOE (dyspnea on exertion), SOB (shortness of breath), angina, syncope, CONTINUOUS MACHINERY MURMUR, thrill at left upper sternal border, bounding pulses -premature infants at increased risk -75% close within 3 months

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

127

vessel

Angi/o

128

aorta

Aort/o

129

artery

Arter/o Arteri/o

130

cholesterol (a lipid substance)

Cholesterol/o

131

mucus

Myx/o

132

oxygen

Ox/o

133

pericardium

Pericardi/o

134

rhythm

Rrhythm/o

135

valve

Valvul/o Valv/o

136

ventricle, lower heart chamber

Ventricul/o

137

-defect or opening in the atrial septum allowing flow of blood between the two chambers (shunting is typically L to R) -childhood symptoms usually minimal (sometimes failure to thrive & frequent pulmonary infections -adult symptoms; easy fatigability, DOE, heart failure -surgical repair delayed until preschool age (2-4) -females > males

Atrial septal defect

138

-congenital or acquired defect of the interventricular septum that allows communication of blood between L and R ventricles; most common congenital heart defect (can occur after MI as well) -male = female -symptoms depend on the degree of shunting across the defect; respiratory distress, tachypnea, holosystolic murmur

Ventricular septal defect

139

-blood doesn't get oxygenated; thrill, S1 normal, loud A2, diminished P2 (murmur loud, crescendo-decrescendo). Cyanosis at birth Four components -Right ventricular outflow stenosis (pulmonic stenosis) -VSD -Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) -Overriding aorta (dextroposition of aorta)

Tetralogy of Fallot

140

-principle complication of heart disease, produced by an abnormality in cardiac pump function (heart can't transport blood sufficiently to meet metabolic needs) -most common inpatient diagnosis for pt's >65 -DOE is cardinal sign of left heart failure -Also nocturia, deteriorating exercise capacity, fatigue, dyspnea, weakness, tachypnea w/ mild exertion, nocturnal productive cough, orthopnea, PND (paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea), wheezing (esp nocturnal)

Congestive heart failure (CHF)

141

-arteriosclerosis; deposition of fatty compounds on tunica interna resulting in thickening & loss of elasticity of arterial walls progressively blocking coronary arteries & their branches -chronic process, risk factors are HTN (hypertension), DM (diabetes mellitus), tobacco, obesity, male (males>females), physical inactivity, increasing age, family history

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

142

Conditions caused by myocardial ischemia, including... -Unstable angina; chest pain at rest or pain of increasing frequency, intensity, or duration (nitroglycerine) -Acute myocardial infarction; MONA (morphine, oxygen, nitrates, aspirin) & early revascularization

Acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)

143

-inflammation of the inner lining of the heart resulting from infection, primarily of the valvular endocardium and occasionally the mural endocardium -male>female (slightly); fever, night sweats, anorexia, heart murmur, chest pain, SOB, cough -treat w/ IV antibiotics

Endocarditis

144

-high blood pressure affecting the heart -left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) from overworking & coronary artery disease (CAD) -conduction abnormalities & systolic and diastolic disfunction

Hypertensive heart disease

145

-improper closure of mitral valve; valve is competent in early systole but prolapses into atrium later in systole -late systolic murmur, midsystolic clicks -apex & left sternal border -easily missed in supine position (also listen in upright position)

Mitral valve prolapse

146

-extra heart sound heard between normal beats -blowing, swooshing sounds due to turbulent blood flow & collision currents -can happen if velocity of blood increases (flow murmur), if viscosity of blood decreases, or if there are structural defects in the valves or unusual opening in chambers -a thrill (vibration felt on palpation of chest) often accompanies murmurs

Murmur

147

-inflammation of the pericardium -symptoms include chest pain (retrosternal w/ radiation to back) which is typically sharp & sudden in onset, made worse with inspiration/movement and reduced by leaning forward & sitting up. also splinted breathing, fever, myalgia, and pericardial friction rub -can lead to cardiac tamponade

Pericarditis

148

-rheumatic fever is preceded by strep group A infection -causes inflammation & scarring of heart valves leading to pericarditis, myocarditis, valvular insufficiency (mitral stenosis), atrial fibrillation, and possibly CHF

Rheumatic heart disease

149

-a permanent localized dilation of the abdominal aorta having at least 50% increase in diameter compared to expected diameter, mostly asymptomatic -may present w/ rupture, embolism, or thrombosis; pulsatile epigastric mass, vague abdominal pain (radiate to back or flank), vertebral body erosion -male>female (4:1) -management/indications for surgery dictated by natural history of aneurysm, type, and size

Aneurysm (aortic)

150

-blood clot in a large vein, usually lower limb -common in pt's on prolonged bed rest, those w/ chronic debilitating disease, and malignancies -pain or tenderness in claf/thigh, usually unilateral although it may be asymptomatic with PE as primary presentation

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT)

151

-high blood pressure (either systolic >140, diastolic >90 consistently) -many factors; amount of blood pumped by heart, size/condition of arteries, volume of water, salt content, condition of kidneys, nervous system, hormone levels -essential = no identifiable cause (may be genetic, environmental, or dietary) -secondary = HTN caused by another disorder (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, adrenal disorder)

Hypertension (HTN)

152

-blockage of arteries carrying blood to legs, arms, kidneys and other organs (usually lower extremities) due to atherosclerosis -intermittent claudication (absence of pain/discomfort at rest but pain/tension/weakness while walking) -treat with exercise, avoidance of nicotine (vasoconstriction), and treatment of risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes)

Peripheral artery disease (PAD)

153

-bilaterally occurring vasospastic disorder manifested by intermittent attacks of extreme pallor, then cyanosis of the fingers/toes (thumbs rarely involved) brought on by cold exposure. with warming vasodilation & intense redness develops followed by swelling, throbbing & paresthesias -may also accompany emotional upset or cigarette smoking -female>male (4:1) -phenomenon is secondary to other conditions such as atherosclerosis, lupus, or scleroderma whereas disease is of uncertain cause in otherwise healthy pt's

Raynaud phenomenon/disease

154

-elongated, dilated, tortuous superficial veins w/ congenitally absent valves or valves that have become incompetent resulting in blood pooling & distended veins -20% of all adults, female>male (5:1) -sometimes asymptomatic, otherwise; leg cramps, dilation/tortuosity of superficial veins, edema of effected limb, leg aches, fatigue, pain (if ulceration develops)

Varicose veins

155

antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II causing blood vessels to dilate. prevents heart attacks, CHF, stroke, and death.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor

156

listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope

Auscultation

157

drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias by blocking the action of epinephrine at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat, and reducing workload on the heart

Beta-blocker

158

device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more blood is pumped out of the heart

Biventricular pacemaker

159

abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ

Bruit

160

drug used to treat angina and hypertension, dilates blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels

Calcium channel blocker

161

sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action, often leading to sudden cardiac death

Cardiac arrest

162

drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heart

Digoxin

163

Open

Patent

164

scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis

Pericardial friction rub

165

drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream

Statins

166

vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow (such as a blocked artery)

Thrill

167

clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves

Vegetations

168

-blood test that differentiates cardiac from pulmonary causes of dyspnea (>100pg/mL in heart failure)

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

169

-chemicals are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack -troponin-I (cTnI) and troponin-T (cTnT) (very specific & sensitive to cardiac injury, elevated within 3 hours and can stay elevated >1 week) -myoglobin (elevated but nonspecific) -creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) (elevated but nonspecific) -CK MB isoenzyme (specific)

Serum enzyme tests/Cardiac biomarkers

170

-measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides in a blood sample; includes total cholesterol, HDL (good), LDL (bad), and triglycerides -lipoprotein electrophoresis is the process which separates the types of lipoproteins

Lipid tests

171

x-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast into an artery

Angiography

172

three dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries, less invasive than angioplasty

Computed tomography angiography (CTA)

173

video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels (x-rays w/ and w/o contrast are superimposed to create one image)

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

174

electron beams and CT identifies calcium deposits in and around the coronary arteries, may diagnose early CAD. results in a coronary artery calcium score which indicates future risk of heart attack/stroke

Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or EBT)

175

high-frequency sound waves and echoes produce images of the heart, done transthoracid or transesophageal (TEE). detects cardiac masses, prosthetic valve function, aneurysms, and pericardial fluid

Echocardiography (ECHO)

176

sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels used to hear vessel obstruction. Duplex ultrasound combines doppler & conventional ultrasound can be used to diagnose artery occlusion, aneurysms, varicose veins etc.

Doppler ultrasound studies

177

-shows blood flow and myocardial function after uptake of radioactive glucose, used to detect CAD, myocardial dysfunction, ischemic heart disease, and cardiomyopathy

Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

178

-technetium 99m sestamibi is injected IV and taken up in areas of an MI -also used w/ an exercise tolerance test (ETT-MIBI) to define areas of poor blood flow in heart muscle

Technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan

179

-concentration of radioactive substance is measured in myocardium, infarcted or scarred myocardium show up as "cold spots"

Thallium 201 scan

180

images of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field, helpful with aneurysms, cardiac output, wall thickness & patency of vessels. contraindicated w/ pacemakers.

Cardiac MRI

181

new type of MRI that gives detailed images of blood vessels, uses gadolinium as contrast agent

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)

182

-thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or artery to detect pressures & patterns of blood flow. contrast may be injected & x-ray images taken in a process called coronary angiography which is the gold standard for diagnosing CAD. -helps define site, severity & morphology of lesions as well as a qualitative assessment of blood flow. look for potentially viable areas of myocardium which may benefit from a revascularization procedure.

Cardiac catheterization

183

-record of electricity flowing through the heart, performed continuously through telemetry

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG)

184

-ECG device worn for 24 hours to detect arrhythmias, rhythm changes are correlated w/ symptoms recorded in a diary

Holter monitoring

185

-ETT (exercise tolerance test) determines the heart's response to physical exertion -Pt placed on treadmill and attached to monitor which records vitals and EKG rhythms

Stress test

186

brief delivery of radio-frequency energy to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias

Catheter ablation

187

the process of restoring the heart's normal rhythm from an abnormal rhythm, most elective cardioversions are performed to treat a-fib, a-flutter, and supraventricular tachycardia

Cardioversion

188

bypassing blockages in coronary arteries with a blood vessel taken from another part of the patient's body (internal mammary, radial, and saphenous vessels)

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)

189

technique used in emergency medicine to terminate v-fib or v-tach. uses electrical shock to reset electrical state of the heart so that it may beat to a rhythm controlled by its own natural pacemaker cells. NOT effective for asystole (flatline) and pulseless electrical activity (PEA)

Defibrillation

190

surgical removal of plaque from an artery taht has become narrowed or blocked, commonly on carotid arteries.

Endarterectomy

191

diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous w/ body circulation; heart-lung machine. used for heart repair surgery. uses the technique of ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation)

Extracorporeal circulation

192

surgical transplant procedure performed on patients w/ end stage heart failure or severe CAD, most commonly the new heart is taken from a recently deceased organ donor. The pt's own heart may either be removed (orthotopic procedure) or less commonly left in to support donor heart (heterotropic procedure)

Heart transplantation

193

balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place to prevent restenosis. typically catheter is threaded through an artery in the groin, known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (aka PTCA, coronary artery balloon dilation, or balloon angioplasty)

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

194

patients placed on a booster pump when waiting for a heart transplant, often called "bridge to transplant"

Left ventricular assist device (LVAD)

195

Thrombolytic agents are given to dissolve abnormal thromboses; streptokinase (SK), urokinase (UK), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). These restore blood flow and limit irreversible damage to heart muscle after an MI, reducing mortality by 25%.

Thrombolytic therapy

196

Placement of a balloon-expandable aortic heart valve into the body via a femoral artery catheter; minimally invasive procedure used to treat aortic stenosis

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement