Body & Body Systems Flashcards Preview

AP/College Biology - 1300+ > Body & Body Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Body & Body Systems Deck (199)
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2

Three types of skeletons

hydrostatic skeletons, exoskeletons, endoskeletons

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changes in movement occur because muscles pull against a support structure called the blank system

skeletal

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skeleton found primarily in soft bodied invertebrates, both terrestrial and aquatic

hydrostatic

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worms have a blank muscle and blank muscle to move

circular, longitudinal, locomotion

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jellyfish produce blank in their bell to move

pulsations

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muscular contractions in squids that expel water forcefully through the siphon and the animal shoots backward... this is called blank

jetting

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exoskeletons of arthropods are made by the carbohydrate called

chitin

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these must be shed because they limit body size that provides protection for internal organs and a site for muscle attachment

exoskeleton

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rigid internal skeletons that form the body's framework and offer surfaces for muscle attachment

endoskeletons

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echinoderms endoskeltons are made of blank

calcite

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the vertebrate endoskeleton is divided into the blank and blank skeletons

axial, appendicular

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skeleton that is the axis of the body

axial

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skeleton that is the limb bones and girdles

appendicular

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this skeleton supports the body and protects internal organs

axial

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skeleton that has pectoral girdle and forelimbs and pelvic girdle and hindlimbs

appendicular

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endoskeletons are made of blank and blank

bone, cartilage

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bone and cartilage are blank tissues

living

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bone and cartilage are blank tissue

connective

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Two cells that produce bone and cartilage

mesenchyme and fibroblasts

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stem cell that differentiates into all other connective tissue cells

mesenchyme

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flexible but resilient connective tissue

cartilage

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cell types that contribute to producing cartilage

chondroblasts and chondrocytes

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these cells make new cartilage

chondroblasts

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these cells maintain existing cartilage

chondrocytes

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hard but resilient connective tissue that is unique to vertebrates

bone

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three cell types that contribute to producing bone

osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts

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cells that make new bone

osteoblasts

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cells that maintain existing bone

osteocytes

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cells that break down existing bone

osteoclasts

31

Two ways bone can develop

from mesenchyme or from a previous cartilage model