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Flashcards in BODY SYSTEMS Deck (59)
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What are the 3 major spaces of the thorax

mediastinum and the 2 pulmonary cavities


Outline pericardium

sac of fibrous CT the heart sits in

Attaches to great vessels and diaphragm

fibrous/tough pericardium

serous/delicate pericardium which is the parietal and visceral layers

functions to prevent over contraction and prevent abrasion of the heart


What is the fossa ovalis

in the RA, remnant of where the placenta connect to heart before birth


What veins run into the RA

superior vena cava

inferior vena cava

coronary sinus


How many pulmonary veins deliver oxygenated blood to the left atrium



What is the foramen ovale

in the LA remnant from blood bypassing lungs in foetus


What is noticeable about the LA auricle

contains muscle pectinate which help contracts the heart


What is the part before the pulmonary trunk called

conus arteriosus


What is trabecular carneae

in the RV forms muscular framework of ventricular walls


What are papillary muscles

at the end of chordae tendinae that prevent inversion or prolapse of connected valves


Outline semilunar valves

valves of aorta and pulmonary trunk.

have left, right and posterior cusps (tricuspid)

no chordae tendinae


Outline atrioventricular valves

have chordae tendinae

right = tricuspid

left = bicuspid, mitral


What are the 3 layers of the walls of the heart

epicardium, myocardium, endocardium


What are the 3 sulci of the heart

atrioventricular (coronary) sulcus

anterior interventricular sulcus

posterior interventricular sulcus


outline the right coronary artery

branches off ascending parts of aorta

sits in posterior interventricular sulcus

branches into right marginal and posterior descending arteries


What is the difference between right dominant and left dominant heart

posterior descending artery branches off RCA or left circumflex branch of LCA.

85:15 % of pop


What are the veins of coronary circulation and where do they sit

Great cardiac vein: drains left heart, along anterior interventricular artery

Small cardiac vein: drains right heart, along right marginal artery

Middle cardiac vein: drains interventricular septum, along posterior interventricular artery

Coronary sinus: collects blood from all veins into RA


Outline the left coronary artery

branches into left anterior descending which sits in anterior interventricular sulcus

branches into left circumflex branch which curves around LA

branches into left marginal


What are the 3 types of arteries of systemic circulation

elastic: handle large pressures, closest to heart, most elastin

muscular: deliver blood to body, far from heart, more smooth muscle than elastin



What are the 3 walls of arteries and veins

tunica intima: simple squamous epithelium, bigger lumen in vein

tunica media: smooth muscle cells, bigger and with more elastin in arteries, change diameter

tunica externa: protective CT layer


General differences between arteries and veins (say arteries, veins are then the opposite)

high blood pressure

thick intima media

relatively small lumen

no valves


what muscles are involved in vigorous and + very vigorous inspiration

scalenes stabilise ribs

external intercostal muscles expand ribs

+ sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles elevate thorax


What parts of the respiratory tract are considered in the upper part

nasal cavity
paranasal sinuses
part of larynx above vocal cords


what are conchae

bony elevations in nasal cavity which delay and thus warm air


what are anterior and internal nares

anterior nares: nostrils

internal nares: posterior choanae which continue flow of air


What are the 3 parts of the pharynx

Nasopharynx: above soft palate, posterior to choanae

Oropharynx: between soft palate and tip of epiglottis

Laryngopharynx (hypopharynx):
below tip of epiglottis, continuous with Oesophagus


What are the muscles of the pharynx

superior/middle/inferior constrictors: squeeze food

salpino/palato/stylo -pharyngeus: elevate pharynx and squeeze food when swallowing


Outline the larynx

cartilaginous structure that connects to hyoid bone and trachea

vestibular ligaments/folds are false vocal cords

vocal ligaments/folds are true vocal cords

connect to arytenoid and corniculate cartilage


Outline the trachea

slightly rigid, flexible tube in mediastinum

carina: point of bifurcation into primary bronchi

15-20 U shaped cartilages, annular ligaments connect cartilages allowing for change in shape

posteriorly sits tracheal muscle


Outline the bronchi and bronchioles

bronchi split into primary, secondary and tertiary

in bronchioles hyaline cartilage above is replaced with smooth muscle, goes bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli