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Flashcards in REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Deck (36)
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1

What is the function of the uterus

to nurture the ovum as it develops into a fetus

2

What is the function of the ovaries

produce reproductive hormones an oocytes

3

What is the function of the cervix

allow flow of blood from uterus, directs sperm into uterus

4

What is the function of the prostate

create prostate fluid for semen, muscle propel sperm in ejaculation

5

What is the function of the corpus spongiosum

contains spongy erectile tissue for erection

6

What is the function of the testes

produce sperm and reproductive hormones

7

What is the function of the ejaculatory duct

connects ductus deferent to the urethra as a passage for semen ejaculation

8

What is the function of the corpus cavernosum

prevents urethra from pinching shut during an erection

9

Explain the transport of sperm through the testes and epididymis

Within testes are seminiferous tubules packed into tunic albuginea. Spermatogenesis occurs here

Sperm collected by rete testis and efferent ducts carry to epididymis

Epididymis stores sperm and is where motility is acquired

10

What are the reasons behind the testes being outside of the body

Optimal temperature for spermatogenesis is 34ºC. Being outside of body lower temperature from body 37ºC.

11

How is the testes thermogenesis controlled

Cremaster muscle: raises/lowers testes in sex or fear for thermoregulation and protection from damage

Dartos muscle: contracts and relaxes the wrinkled scrotal surface for thermoregulation.

Pampiniform plexus: Countercurrent blood heat exchange in testes.

12

What is the spermatic cord

Thick walled tube from epididymis passing through abdominal body wall (inguinal canal).

Contains muscle and fascial layers, testicular artery and vein and ductus deferens.

13

What are the accessory organs of the male reproductive system

Seminal vesicles
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral glands
Urethra

14

Explain the seminal vesicles and prostate gland

Seminal vesicles: Behind bladder, join d. deferens to form ejaculatory duct. Secrete fructose and prostoglandins for sperm and dilation of cervix.

Prostate gland: Inferior to bladder, secretes citric acid (nutrients), seminal plasmin (antibiotic of UTI) and PSA (liquifies semen)

15

Explain the bulbourethral glands and the urethra

Bulbourethral (Cowper's glands: each side of membranous urethra. Secretes viscous mucin to protect urethra, lubricant in sex.

Urethra: Transports semen and urine. Pre-prostatic prostatic, membranous and spongy

16

What is the penis

3 primary erectile tissue bodies (spongy masses of potential vascular space).

Corpus cavernosum (clitoris) paired masses on anterior side of penis

Corpus spongiosum single mass on posterior side of penis

Glans is the expanded distal end with the external urethral orifice

17

What are the sexual functions of the Penis

Erection: parasympathetic cause dilation

Emission: Secretion of accessory glands an spermatozoa into urethra

Ejaculation: Release of semen by contraction of bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscles around the corpus.

18

What are the functions of Sertoli cells

Sex determination by expressing SRY (drives development)

Development by secreting AMH, regression of female characteristics in foetal life

Hormonal regulations

Stem cell regulation by GDNF ensuring self-renewal

Form blood-testis barrier

19

What is the syncytium

Cytoplasmic bridge between sperm to share products of X and Y genes

20

How does a prostate cancer test work

Pca is a substance produced in the prostate. If a tumour occurs pca is found in the bloodstream

21

Outline the steps of spermatogenesis

Spermatogonium
Primary spermatocyte

FIRST MEIOTIC DIVISION

Two secondary spermatocytes

SECOND MEIOTIC DIVISION

4 spermatids

SPERMIOGENESIS

4 spermatozoa

22

Outline female external genitalia

Collectively called the vulva

Mons pubis: skin and tissue anterior to pubic bone

Labia majora and minora: paired folds of skin. minora vascularised, sebaceous glands

Clitoris: erectile body anterior to l. minora

Prepuce: Fold of l. minora covering clitoris

Vestibule: Space between l. minora. Urethral opening, vaginal orifice.

23

Outline the female internal accessory organs

Fallopian tubes: Project from uterus with infundibulum at distal end.

Uterus: Muscular organ. Fundus = body, Cervix = opening

Linings: Perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium

24

What are the body targets of estrogen

Brain: maintanence of body temp and memory

Heart/liver: cholesterol production

Bone: Preserves bone density

Breast/uterus/ovaries: Stimulates maturation and menstrual cycle

25

Outline the steps of oogenesis

Before birth, primordial follicle forms and meiosis starts and halts.

In puberty, FSH increases follicle growth and oocyte size.

Each month, multiple follicles mature, one will dominant and become FSH-independent.

Dominant follicle secretes inhibin to stop FSH production causing other follicles to degrade

26

What are the similarities between spermatogenesis and oogenesis

surrounded by support cells (sertoli/granulosa) & hormone producing cells (leydig/theca)

undergo maturation and meiosis

Produce haploid germ cells

27

What are the 3 principles sexual reproduction is governed by

Behavioural: Social structures, seduction/dominance pre and post copulation

Physical: external physical attributes as reproductive signals

Morphological: shape of penis, copulatory movement

28

Explain the reasoning behind having many sexual mates

Gender that contributes most to infant care has lower gamete numbers and benefits by minimal mating with best mate

Opposite gender benefits by additional mating to maximise fertilisation

29

What are 3 types of competition tactics seen in animals

Sperm speed: important when multiple mates

Sperm bundling: Sperm form cooperative groups to reach egg together

Terminating previous fertilisation: Could physically block transfer of sperm of later mating, or release anti-aphrodisiac and enzymes that destroy previous sperm.

30

When is sperm count high

In species where females copulate with multiple males