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Flashcards in BASICS OF ANATOMY Deck (27)
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1

Define physiology

the study of the function of structures in the body.

2

Define anatomy

Classification and description of the structures of the body.

3

What are the types of organisational anatomy

Systemic anatomy
Regional anatomy

4

What is systemic anatomy

organisation of body into systems that work together to carry out complex functions

5

What is regional anatomy

organisation of specific areas of the body emphasising relationships among structures

6

What is adaptation

the ability of an Organism to survive and reproduce in its environment by changing traits

7

Define long term adaptation

genetic evolutionary changes characterising all individuals within a population or species

8

Define short term adaptation

acclimatisation by temporary physiological changes

9

What are homologous structures

Structures that are similar in their fundamental construction, although they may serve different purposes

10

What are analogous structures

Similarity of traits in terms of function between unrelated species that do not share a common ancestral origin. These traits can evolved independently of each other.

11

What are the 3 planes of the body

Frontal/coronal

Sagittal/median

Transverse

12

Direction of the coronal plane

back to front

splits dorsal/posterior and ventral/anterior

13

Direction of the sagittal plane

side to side, Parallel to sagittal suture

splitting left and right

14

Direction of the transverse plane

head to toe

splits cranial/head and caudal/tail

15

Head directional terms

Occipital:
closer to back of head

Rostral:
closer to front of head

16

Hand and feet directional terms

Dorsum:
back of hand, top of feet

Palmar surface:
palms of hand

Plantar surface:
underside of feet

17

inversion

eversion

turned in ankle

turned out ankle

18

rotation at elbow join

pronation:
rotation so palm faces back

supination: rotation so palm faces forward

19

Bergmann's rule
(body size)

increase body mass decreases heat loss (VOL)

colder climates:
larger body mass.

warmer climates:
smaller body mass.

20

Allen's rule
(limb shape)

increase in extremities increases heat loss (SA)

colder climates:
shorter extremities.

warmer climates:
longer extremities.

21

What is isometry

increases in size without changing proportion of whole body

22

What is allometry

changes in size while changing proportion relative to whole body

23

What is heterochrony

differential rates of development for different cells leading to changes in size and or shape.

24

What is progenesis

earlier phase of development

25

what is hypermorphosis

later stage of development

26

what is neoteny

slower development compared to descendant (retain juvenile phenotype, paedomorphosis)

27

Differences between CT and MRI.

CT:
rotating x ray beam with detectors detecting absorption in density. Compiles 2D images to give a 3D final.

MRI:
hydrogen atom emission in magnetic field. image constructed from frequencies emitted.