CLASSIFYING THE SKETAL MUSCLE SYSTEM Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CLASSIFYING THE SKETAL MUSCLE SYSTEM Deck (34)
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1

Outline smooth muscle

absence of striations, innervated by ANS, slow rhythmic contractions

walls of hollow organs

blood vessels, eye muscles, respiratory

2

Outline cardiac muscle

transverse striations with intercalated discs. contraction regulated by pacemaker cells influenced by ANS. quick continuous rhythmic contraction.

heart

3

Outline skeletal muscle

transverse striations. innervated by motor neurons, voluntary contraction. move bones, stabilise joints

attached to bone via tendon

4

Functions of skeletal muscle

movement

Maintain posture and position

Support soft tissues

Guard entrances and exits

Maintain body temperature

Store nutrient reserves (metabolic tissue)

5

Sub unit order of skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle

Fascicles

Skeletal muscle fibres/cells

Myofibrils

Sarcomeres

6

Surrounding tissues of skeletal muscle

Epimysium: covers entire muscle

Perimysium: covers fascicles, contains blood vessels and nerves

Endomysium: covers individual muscle fibres/cells

7

Make up motor units

Skeletal muscles are innervated by motor nerves. motor nerves are made up of motor neurons.

more strength = more motor neurons = motor nerves recruited = innervate more fascicles

8

Physical components of a muscle

Belly
Tendons
Fascia

9

Outline belly of muscle

Fleshy part of muscle, which is the contractile part, vascularised

10

Outline tendons of muscle

bands of CT connection muscle to skeleton. poorly vascularised

11

Outline fascia of muscle

A fibrous membrane covering, supporting and separating muscles

12

What is an aponeurosis

broad tendinous fascia sheet

joins muscles

or joins muscles with large are attachment to bone

13

Outline the implications of a longer myofibril

longer myofibril = greater range of motion

myofibrils still contract the same, no difference due to length

14

what is contraction force related to

cross sectional area of muscle (having more fascicles to innervate)

15

What is an isometric contraction

tension produced, no length change, no movement

static contraction as joint stays the same

16

What is an isotonic contraction

Tension produced, change in length.

dynamic contraction because joint will move

concentric = shortening

eccentric = lengthening

17

What are the 3 types of muscle fibres

Slow oxidative (slow twitch, type 1)

Fast oxidative-glycolytic (intermediate twitch, type IIA)

Fast glycolytic ( fast twitch, type IIX)

18

Which fibre type has the highest fatigue resistance

Slow oxidative.

19

What are the different types of fascicle arrangements

parallel
flat
convergent
pennate
fusiform
digastric
circular
quadrate

20

outline parallel fascicles

parallel to long axis of muscle

contracts = shorten = larger in diameter

21

outline convergent fascicles

fascicles converge at common attachment.

stimulating different portions can change pull

22

outline pennate fascicles

diagonal direction to tendon, pull angled, greater force due to more fibres

uni, bi or multi

23

outline circular fascicles

concentrically arranged around opening, guards entry, exit to the body

24

outline flat fascicles

flat muscle, parallel fascicles, often have an aponeurosis

25

outline quadrate fascicles

all sides are equal size, tendinous intersections, parallel fascicles

26

outline fusiform fascicles

spindle shaped muscle (thick belly, thinner at tendons), parallel fascicles

27

outline digastric fascicles

two different bellies connected by a tendon, fascicles are fusiform (parallel).

28

What are intrinsic muscles

only cross one joint, tendons and bellies in one region

29

What are extrinsic muscles

muscles that cross one or more joints, tendons and bellies are indifferent compartments

30

4 groups of muscle actions

agonist
antagonist
synergist
fixators