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Flashcards in SPINAL CORD AND BRAIN Deck (37)
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1

What are the functions of the spinal meninges

To protect the spinal cord from the bony vertebral column and vascularise the spinal cord

2

What is the cauda equina and why does it exist?

A bundle of long spinal nerves. The spinal cord ends at L1-2 because the vertebral column grows faster then the spinal cord. The cauda equina allows for the spinal nerves to extend down to the lower limbs.

3

Where is the epidural space

Between the dura mater and the periosteum. In this space is nerve roots supplying the pelvis and lower limbs

4

Why are there larger diameters at the cervical and lumbar areas of the spinal cords

To accomodate for the nerve inputs of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus.

5

Explain the neural pathway of movement without conscious thought

Sensory neurons relay to a motor neuron in the spinal cord via an interneuron. Therefore movement can be performed without conscious thought as the nerve information does not travel to the brain.

This is the case for the patellar and pain reflexes

6

What is the filum terminale

Not a nerve. It is a modified band of pia mater, 20 cm long

In between conus medullaris (end of spinal cord) and1st coccygeal bone.

Provides stability to spinal cord within vertebral canal

7

What are the differences between cranial and spinal nerves

Cranial: exit cranial cavity through foramina, relate to special senses

Spinal: (exception of C1) arise from spinal cord and exit via intervertebral foramina. 31 bilateral pairs that have both sensory and motor neurons

8

Why are there 8 cervical spinal nerves if there are only 7 cervical vertebrae

1st cervical nerve is superior to atlas (C1). The rest exit between vertebrae. Making 8 in total

9

What is the role of the intercostal nerves

Somatic nerves that control:

intercostal muscles
thoracic pleura
abdominal peritoneum
anterior abdominal wall muscles

10

Explain the characteristics of the median nerve

C6-T1: Lateral and medial cords

Motor:
Superficial and deep flexors of anterior forearm compartment
Some intrinsic hand muscles

Sensory skin:
Anterolateral surface of hand

11

Explain the characteristics of the ulnar nerve

C8 + T1 + C7: Medial cord

Motor:
Some anterior forearm muscles
Ulnar 1/2 flexor digitorum profundus
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Deep head of flexor pollicis brevis
Intrinsic hand muscles

Sensory skin:
Medial edge of hand

12

Explain the characteristics of the radial nerve

C5-T1: Posterior cord

Motor:
Extensor muscles of posterior compartment of arm and forearm

Sensory skin:
Posterior arm and forearm
Dorsum of hand

13

Explain the characteristics of the femoral nerve

L2-L4

Motor:
Anterior thigh compartment
Hip flexors
Knee extensors (except Psoas major)

Sensory skin:
Over anteromedial surface of thigh
Medial surface of leg and foot

14

Explain the characteristics of the sciatic nerve

L4-S3

Motor:
Posterior thigh compartment by tibial division of sciatic nerve

15

Explain the characteristics of the common fibular nerve

Motor:
Deep part = anterior leg compartment (dorsiflexors)
Superficial part: Lateral leg compartment (eversion)
Short head of biceps femoris (Posterior thigh)

Sensory skin:
lateral leg
dorsum of foot and digits

16

Explain the characteristics of the tibial nerve

Motor:
Superficial and deep posterior leg compartments
Plantarflexion, inversion, leg flexion at knee

Sensory skin:
Posterolateral leg
Plantar surface of foot + digits

17

Describe what components make up the parts of the brain

Forebrain: Diencephalon and cerebrum

Midbrain: Mesencephalon

Hindbrain: Cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata

Brainstem: Mesencephalon, pons, medulla oblongata

Spinal cord: Spinal cord, inferior to medulla oblongata

18

What is the grey and white matter

grey: cell bodies
White myelinated axons

In brain: white on inside for more direct neuronal pathway

In spinal cord: white on outside

19

CN 1: Olfactory nerve

SENSORY

Detects smell from olfactory area in nasal cavity

20

CN 2: Optic nerve

SENSORY

Carries visual info from retina to

21

CN 3: Oculomotor nerve

MOTOR

Controls intra and extra ocular muscles for eye movement

22

CN 4: Trochlear nerve

MOTOR

Controls 1 superior extra ocular muscle for eye movement

23

CN 5: Trigeminal nerve

SENSORY AND MOTOR

Sensory:
Faces, sinuses, teeth, gums, lips, palate

Motor:
Muscles of mastication

24

CN 6: Abducens nerve

MOTOR

Controls 1 lateral extra ocular muscle for eye movement

25

CN 7: Facial nerve

SENSORY AND MOTOR

Sensory:
Detects taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue

Motor: Muscles of facial expression

26

CN 8: Vestibulocochlear nerve

SENSORY

Responsible for hearing, cochlear branch, responsible for orientation and balance

27

CN 9: Glossopharyngeal nerve

SENSORY AND MOTOR

Sensory:
Detects taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue, sensation of pharynx, sinus, middle ear cavity

Motor:
Stylopharangeus muscle, paratoid gland

28

CN 10: Vagus nerve

SENSORY AND MOTOR

Sensory:
Pharynx, larynx, bronchial tree, lungs, heart, upper GI tract

Motor:
Palate, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchial tree, heart, upper GI tract

29

CN 11: Spinal accessory nerve

MOTOR

Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles

30

CN 12: Hypoglossal nerve

MOTOR

Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue