CLASSIFYING THE HUMAN SKELETON Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CLASSIFYING THE HUMAN SKELETON Deck (35)
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1

What are the function of the human skeleton

Support

Protection

movement

Blood cell production

Storage of nutrients

2

Outline cartilage

semi rigid dense connective tissue containing chondrocytes and extracellular matrix of collagen.

resistant to force, where flexibility is needed.
articulates joints
avascular

3

Hyaline cartilage

closely packed collagen fibres

supports

areas to reduce friction, allow movement

articular surfaces, costal cartilage, nose tip

4

Elastic cartilage

elastic fibres ECM

resiliant, flexible

soft areas needing to hold shape

ears, throat

5

Fibrocartilage

Interwoven collagen ECM

tough

joining bones in cavities

meniscus of knee, pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs

6

Outline ligaments

dense bands of CT attach bones to each other for support and strength

reinforce joints, flexible but strong end to end

collagen fibres like strains of a rope.

7

Outline joints

area where adjacent bones interact. allow movement. classified by function (movement) and structure

8

Synarthrosis

No movement.

bony edges close together

strong, movement must be prevented

parietal bones

9

Amphiarthrosis

little movement.

moderate strength and movement

connects by collagen or cartilage

pubic symphysis

10

Diarthrosis

free movement

joint articulation like shoulder for free movement

11

Fibrous joint

articular surface fibrous CT

12

Cartilaginous joint

firmly held together by hyaline or fibrocartilage

13

Synovial joint

freely moveable

articular cartilage and synovial fluid cavity and membrane

supported by fibrous capsule and ligaments

14

Types of synovial joints by movement

gliding
condylar
hinge
saddle
pivot
ball and socket

15

gliding joints

flat, gliding

16

condylar joints

oval surface depression, angular (2 planes)

17

Hinge joints

back and forth (1 plane)

18

Saddle joints

concave and convex on axes, angular, circumduction, NOT ROTATION

19

Ball and socket

round end sits in cup depression, all movement

20

Outline bone

osseous tissue with specialised cells and mineralised matrix

compact:
otuside, vascularised, calcified

spongy:
mineralised trabecular, avascular (mostly), surrounding marrow or adipose

21

types of bones

short
flat
irregular
sesamoid
long

22

short bone

cuboidal shaped, small boxy

23

flat bone

thin, parallel surface, protection

24

irregular bone

complex shapes

25

sesamoid bone

sesame seed shaped, develop in tendon near a joint. protect tendons for wear.

26

long bone

tubular shaped, slender

largest medullary cavities (bone marrow)

vascularised

site of growth

27

parts of long bones

epiphysis:
ends of bone

diaphysis:
shaft, medullary cavity

metaphysis:
between diaphysis and epiphysis, epiphyseal plate

28

what are epiphyseal plates

layer of hyaline cartilage at ends of growing long bones

new bone growth causing elongation

when finished, epiphyseal line

29

what is a bony landmark

provide fixed point to determine position of joints and identify a bone.

30

what is a tubercle

eminence often a site of tendon/ligament attachment. lesser or greater

tuberosity = larger
trochanter = femur